• Title, Summary, Keyword: tongue

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Study of Tongue Color Histogram in Elderly People with Evacuation Disorder (대변장애를 주증으로 하는 고령자의 혀 색상 히스토그램 특성 연구)

  • Jung, Chang Jin;Kim, JI Hye;Nam, Ji Ho;Jeon, Young Ju;Kim, Keun Ho
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.683-687
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    • 2013
  • Evacuation disorder(ED) is frequently observed in the elderly people. In this study, we investigated the tongue color properties in the elderly. 327 subjects were participated in this study and classified into normal group (n=95) and ED group (n=23) by two Korean Oriental Medicine doctors. The tongue images were acquired by using computerized tongue diagnosis system, and its color were linearly corrected base on CIE $L^*a^*b^*$ values of 12 color samples. The tongue region was segmented from acquired image and divided into two regions along the vertical direction. In order to estimate color properties of the tongue, a color histogram was calculated for the root region based on the CIE $L^*$ and $a^*$ values, and differences of color histogram values between normal and ED groups were computed based on the Mann-Whitney U test. As results, pixels corresponding to typical colors of the pale tongue and thin tongue coating were significantly more distributed in ED than those in normal group(p<0.05). The tongue color of the root region in ED was revealed to be different from those in healthy subjects.

Tongue-Lip Adhesion Using an Alveolar Protector Appliance for Management of Pierre Robin Sequence (피에르 로빈 연속증의 치료로써 치조 보호 장치를 이용한 혀-하순 유착술)

  • Lee, Jang-Won;Park, Beyoung-Yun
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.547-551
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: Pierre Robin sequence is a congenital malformation in which micrognathia causes glossoptosis and airway obstruction. If conservative treatment fails, surgical procedures such as tongue-lip adhesion can be performed. However, this procedure remains a subject of debate, with favorable results being countered by reports of complications. To overcome the above limitations, we revised the traditional method of tongue-lip adhesion using an alveolar protector. Methods: Between 1992 and 2011, a total of eight patients were identified with Pierre Robin sequence and were treated with tongue-lip adhesion. Two of these eight tongue-lip adhesion procedures were performed with an alveolar protector. The operative technique for tongue-lip adhesion was similar to that described in other published reports. The alveolar protector was inserted between the ventral surface of the tip of the tongue and the lower labial sulcus. Results: Tongue-lip adhesion failed in two patients because of wound dehiscence. The primary surgical success rate was 66.7%. In the two tongue-lip adhesion procedures performed with the alveolar protector, we observed no postoperative complications. Conclusion: Resistance to traction of the tongue can be encountered with nonunionized symphysis menti, causing loosening of the traction suture through the symphysis menti. This can lead to backward positioning of tongue, resulting in dehiscence of tongue lip adhesion. The alveolar protector is a good adjunct to tongue-lip adhesion because this method avoids postoperative loosening of the traction suture and wound dehiscence. It is a simple and effective auxiliary method that yields functional improvement.

A Proposal for Standardization of Tongue Diagnosis Based on Diagnostic Criteria of Tongue Coating Thickness (설진의 표준화를 위한 제언 : 설태 후박의 진단기준을 중심으로)

  • Son, Ji-Hee;Kim, Jin-Sung;Park, Jae-Woo;Ryu, Bong-Ha
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2012
  • Background : In oriental medicine, the status of the tongue is an important indicator to diagnose the condition of one's health, such as physiological and the clinicopathological changes of internal organs. A tongue diagnosis is not only convenient but also non-invasive, and therefore widely used in Oriental medicine. However, the tongue diagnosis is greatly affected by examination circumstances, patient's posture, and doctor's diagnosis criteria. Objectives : This study was designed to assure the necessity for standardization of tongue diagnosis based on diagnostic criteria of tongue coating thickness (TCT). Methods : Thirty tongue photographs were acquired and analyzed by digital tongue diagnosis system (DTDS) which measured the percentage of TCT on the tongue surface. Fifteen oriental medical doctors evaluated TCT in 30 photographs. Afterward, the 15 assessors were trained for diagnostic criteria of TCT and evaluated the photographs again. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to obtain the agreement rate among the 15 assessors and the agreement rate between assessors' TCT scores and DTDS values. Results : The agreement rate among the 15 assessors after training was higher than before training. The agreement rate between assessors' TCT scores and DTDS values after training was also higher than before training. Furthermore, the difference of the agreement rate between before and after training was significant (p<0.05). Conclusions : The standardization of diagnostic criteria of TCT increased the agreement rate among the assessors and the agreement rate between assessors' TCT scores and DTDS values. Therefore, the standardization of diagnostic criteria is expected to contribute to the objectification and quantification of the tongue diagnosis system.

Diagnostic Values of Tongue Coating Thickness and Sterno-costal Angle in Functional Dyspepsia (기능성 소화불량 환자에서 설태후박 및 흉늑각 측정의 진단적 가치)

  • Son, Ji-Young;Kim, Jin-Sung
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.157-174
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    • 2014
  • Objectives : The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic values of tongue coating thickness and sterno-costal angle as the quantitative diagnostic indicators in functional dyspepsia. Methods : We surveyed 60 functional dyspepsia patients recruited by the clinical trial, 'Clinical Trial for Evaluation on Availability of tongue diagnosis system (CTS-1000) : a Pilot study'. The patients were classified into three groups according to Rome III criteria for functional dyspepsia, and categorized into five groups according to Instrument of pattern identification for functional dyspepsia. Nepean dyspepsia index-Korean version (NDI-K) score, tongue coating thickness (percentage of tongue coating by tongue diagnosis system (CTS-1000), and weight of tongue coating by microbalance), sterno-costal angle, duration of illness and body mass index (BMI) were investigated. Results : Among the 5 types by instrument of pattern identification for functional dyspepsia, a significant difference of percentage of tongue coating was found. Percentage of tongue coating and weight of tongue coating showed significant correlation with total NDI-K score. Sterno-costal angle showed strong positive correlation with BMI and also showed significant difference between the non-overweight (BMI<23, n=32) and overweight ($BMI{\geq}23$, n=28) groups. Conclusions : Tongue coating thickness showed its potential as a new quantitative diagnostic indicator of functional dyspepsia. Further studies on the sterno-costal angle are anticipated to evaluate its potential as a new quantitative diagnostic indicator.

Trends of Tongue Features in Functional Dyspepsia Patients (기능성 소화불량 환자에서 설 지표의 경향성 파악)

  • Kim, Jihye;Ko, Seok-jae;Park, Jae-woo;Kim, Keun Ho
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.637-644
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: In this study, the tongue features of patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) were compared with those of healthy controls. Methods: This prospective, case-control study was conducted on patients with FD and controls recruited at a single center. After screening, the subjects were allocated to the patient or control groups (patients=42, controls=40). Tongue images were acquired using a computerized tongue image acquisition system (CTIS). An independent t-test was conducted to compare the measurements from patients and controls. Binary logistic regression was performed to determine significant differences between the two groups after adjusting for age and sex. Results: The CIE $a^*$ color value in the tongue coating area was significantly lower in the patients with FD than in the controls (p=0.001). The tongue coating ratios were also significantly higher in the FD group than in the control group (p=0.003). We found that the CIE $a^*$ color value in the tongue coating area and the tongue coating ratios were significant predictive factors in both groups, based on binary regression analysis (p=0.016, 0.044, respectively). Conclusions: This study found that FD was significantly associated with CIE $a^*$ color value in the tongue coating area and tongue coating ratios. We suggest that these factors could be used as objective indicators of FD.

Detection of Tongue Area using Active Contour Model (능동 윤곽선 모델을 이용한 혀 영역의 검출)

  • Han, Young-Hwan
    • Journal of rehabilitation welfare engineering & assistive technology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.141-146
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    • 2016
  • In this paper, we apply limited area mask operation and active contour model to accurately detect tongue area outline in tongue diagnosis system. To accurately analyze the properties of the tongue, first, the tongue area to be detected. Therefore an effective segmentation method for detecting the edge of tongue is very important. It experimented with tongue image DB consists of 20~30 students 30 people. Experiments on real tongue image show the good performance of this method. Experimental results show that the proposed method extracts object boundaries more accurately than existing methods without mask operation.

A Relation between Functional Outcome and Changes of Tongue Inspection in Stroke Patients (중풍환자의 설상변화와 운동기능향상의 관련성 연구)

  • 최동준;김재관;문상관;조기호;김영석;배형섭;이경섭
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 2000
  • Objectives : Stroke patients have continuously increased and many studies have been performed to predict their prognosis. Tongue Inspection is a diagnostic method that has been widely used in oriental medicine. The aim of this study was to examine if stroke patients' motor recovery might be related to tongue inspection. Methods : MBI(Modified Barthel Index) and tongue inspection of stroke patients within 3 days of onset were assessed on admission and at 10 days following admission. Results : Functional recovery was significantly better in those who showed favorable changes of tongue, especially in tongue coat color(P=0.030) and thick and thin tongue coat(P=0.092). Conclusions : The results suggest that tongue inspection can be used to predict a prognosis of early stage stroke patients.

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The Effects of Tongue Pressure Strength and Accuracy Training on Tongue Strength and Speech Function of Chronic Stroke Patients (혀 저항정확도훈련이 만성 뇌졸중 환자의 혀 근력과 구어기능에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Bo-Jung;Ma, Sung-Ryoung
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.156-166
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the tongue's maximum resistance training program on the accuracy of the tongue training program using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI) and to compare the effects of tongue muscle strength and spoken language function on objective function. The experiment was diagnosed with stroke hemiplegia divided into tongue pressure strength and accuracy training therapy group and the oromotor exercise therapy group Anterior Tongue Pressure(ATP), Posterior Tongue Pressure (PTP), and Posterior Tongue Pressure (PTP) were measured before and after the intervention to evaluate changes in tongue strength and verbal ability. Maximum Phonation Time (MPT). The results of this study are as follows. There was no significant difference in tongue strength and verbal function between training group and oral facial exercise group. There was no significant difference between tongue strength training and oral facial exercise group. Therefore, it was shown that the tongue pressure strength and accuracy training therapy group was not effective to improve tongue muscle strength and spoken language ability than the oromotor exercise therapy group.

Bibliographic Study on the Tongue-Acupunccture Therapy (설침요법(舌鍼療法)에 대한 문헌적(文獻的) 고찰(考察))

  • Lee, Jun Ho;Kim, Kee Hyun
    • Journal of Haehwa Medicine
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.255-278
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    • 1992
  • Based on recent 27 document, reported in Huang Ti Nei Ching, the following results concering the tongue and Tongue-acupuncture were obtained: 1. It was observed that the tongue has direct or indirect connection with the Heart meridian, the Liver meridian, the Spleen meridian, the Kidney meridian, the Triple energizer meridian and the Stomach meridian. 2. The Tongue-acupunccture, needlingon tongue, is one of new acupunctures treating general disorder and 31 acu-points have been found; 17 points on the upper part and 14 points on the lower part of the tongue. 3. The Tongue-acupuncture is employed by dividing the tongue into threeregions; Sangcho area(下焦穴), Jungcho area(中焦穴) and Hacho area(下焦穴). Each region cures its own corresponding symptoms. 4. The upper part of the tongue is divided into 4 regions by the sidelines along with Chuy Cheon(聚泉), So Jang Hyul(小腸穴) and Dae Jang Hyul(大腸穴). Sangcho area(上焦穴) includes Sim Hyul(心穴), Pye Hyul(肺穴), Sang Gi Hyul(上肢穴) and Jungcho area(中焦穴) includes Ui Hyul(胃穴), Bi Hyul(脾穴), Dam Hyul(膽穴) and Hacho area(下焦穴) includes Gan Hyul(肝穴), Bang Kwang Hyul(膀胱), Sin Hyul(腎穴) and the inner region includes Yim Hyul(陰穴), Ha Gi Hyul(下肢穴), on The lower part of the tongue, there are aec Hyul(額穴), Mok Hyul(目穴), Bi Hyul(鼻穴), I Hyul(耳穴), In Hu Hyul(咽喉穴) in contrast with the face above the center of the tongue as well as Gi Maek Hyul(支脈穴), Hae Chun Hyul(海泉), Gyum Gin Ok Aek(金津玉液), Seol Ha Hyul(舌下穴), Seol Gu(舌柱), Joa Chun Hyul(佐泉穴), Sin Gyun Hyul(神根穴), Jung Gu(中矩), Aek Bang Hyul(液旁穴). 5. The Tongue-acupuncture can be applied to the disease internal medicine, surgery, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, gynecology, musculoskeletal system, symptomatology.

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Mechanical Design and Development of a Digital Tongue Imaging System Equipped with LEDs (LED 광원을 이용한 디지털 혀 영상 촬영장치의 기구설계와 개발)

  • Nam, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Ji-Hye;Lee, Sang-Suk
    • The Journal of the Society of Korean Medicine Diagnostics
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: The aims of this study are to design a optimized mechanical structure of digital tongue imaging system (DTIS) equipped with LEDs in aspects of object distance and camera angle of coverage. Methods and Results: We tried to find optimized object distance while recording a rectangular object of common tongue size. In case object distance is 22 cm or less, edge of the rectangle was not taken beyond the shooting range. In contrast, if object distance is 40 cm or more, the rectangle image was too small. Therefore when considering the variation of subjects, we selected distance of 35-40 cm as appropriate object distance for the DTIS. We also tried to find optimized angle between camera view axis and horizontal line. We photographed from the side of the face of 7 adults with exposed tongue. We drew an exposed tongue lines to connect the tongue tip points and the tongue root points by using the photos acquired from the side faces. And then we calculated the tongue exposure angles between the vertical line and the exposed tongue lines. Mean tongue exposure angle was $28.3^{\circ}$ when tongue was lightly exposed and $13.3^{\circ}$ when maximally. So we determined $73^{\circ}$ as appropriate slope angle of part in contact with face of the DTIS and by considering that the standard variation was great, we designed control gears to adjust the slope of the camera view axis and to regulate the object distance. Conclusions: We designed a optimized mechanical structure in object distance and slope angle of part in contact with face of the DTIS.