• Title, Summary, Keyword: tongue

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Effect of Botulinum Toxin Injection and Physical Therapy to Reduce Tongue Pain and Discomfort: Case Reports

  • Kwon, Dae-Kyung;Park, Hee-Kyung
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.120-123
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    • 2020
  • The causes of tongue pain and discomfort include systemic disease, malnutrition, mental illness, fungal infection, and neuropathy. Three postmenopausal women reported burning sensations and stiffness of the tongue for various periods, from one month to four years. There were no objective etiological factors to cause the tongue pain and discomfort. Muscular tenderness upon palpation of masticatory muscles, sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, and tongue were observed. Physical therapy approaches such as moist hot pack, ultrasound, and myomonitor were performed on three patients with tongue pain, just as for temporomandibular joint disease. Additional botulinum toxin injection therapy was applied to one patient who displayed a clenching habit. All three patients showed a marked improvement in their tongue symptoms after the muscle relaxation and botulinum toxin injection therapy.

Comparative Study of Tongue Color in Common Cold Patients and Controls (감기 환자와 건강대조군 간의 설 특성 비교연구)

  • Kim, Ji Hye;Joo, Jong Cheon;Park, Soo Jung;Kim, Keun Ho
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.320-326
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    • 2016
  • Tongue diagnosis is convenient and non-invasive method to examine the body's functional condition, and it has been frequently used in traditional Korean Medicine (KM). The aim of this study was to investigate the difference of the tongue color assessed by computerized tongue image analysis system (CTIS) between the common cold (CC) patients and healthy subjects. A total of 85 participants, including 45 CC patients without organic diseases and 40 healthy subjects, were asked to complete the CC symptom questionnaire. A tongue image was acquired by using CTIS. Color differences in Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L*, a* and b* between the CC patient group and the control group were analyzes by using paired t-test analysis. The variable CIE b* of the tongue body was significantly lower in CC than that in controls (P=0.019). The variable CIE L* of the tongue coating was significantly higher in CC than that in controls (P=0.032). In CC, the color of the tongue body seems to be changed to intense red color. The color of the tongue coating seems to be changed to thick fur. The present study demonstrated that the CTIS can be used as a diagnostic and monitoring tool for the objective and standardized evaluation of common cold in clinics.

Development of Tongue Diagnosis System Using ASM and SVM (ASM과 SVM을 이용한 설진 시스템 개발)

  • Park, Jin-Woong;Kang, Sun-Kyung;Kim, Young-Un;Jung, Sung-Tae
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 2013
  • In this study, we propose a tongue diagnosis system which detects the tongue from face image and divides the tongue area into six areas, and finally generates tongue fur ratio of each area. To detect the tongue area from face image, we use ASM as one of the active shape models. Detected tongue area is divided into six areas and the distribution of tongue coating of six areas is examined by SVM. For SVM, we use a 3-dimensional vector calculated by PCA from a 12-dimensional vector consisting of RGB, HSV, Lab, and Luv. As a result, we stably detected the tongue area using ASM. Furthermore, we recognized that PCA and SVM helped to raise the ratio of tongue coating detection.

Feasibility Study of Google's Teachable Machine in Diagnosis of Tooth-Marked Tongue

  • Jeong, Hyunja
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.206-212
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    • 2020
  • Background: A Teachable Machine is a kind of machine learning web-based tool for general persons. In this paper, the feasibility of Google's Teachable Machine (ver. 2.0) was studied in the diagnosis of the tooth-marked tongue. Methods: For machine learning of tooth-marked tongue diagnosis, a total of 1,250 tongue images were used on Kaggle's web site. Ninety percent of the images were used for the training data set, and the remaining 10% were used for the test data set. Using Google's Teachable Machine (ver. 2.0), machine learning was performed using separated images. To optimize the machine learning parameters, I measured the diagnosis accuracies according to the value of epoch, batch size, and learning rate. After hyper-parameter tuning, the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) analysis method determined the sensitivity (true positive rate, TPR) and specificity (false positive rate, FPR) of the machine learning model to diagnose the tooth-marked tongue. Results: To evaluate the usefulness of the Teachable Machine in clinical application, I used 634 tooth-marked tongue images and 491 no-marked tongue images for machine learning. When the epoch, batch size, and learning rate as hyper-parameters were 75, 0.0001, and 128, respectively, the accuracy of the tooth-marked tongue's diagnosis was best. The accuracies for the tooth-marked tongue and the no-marked tongue were 92.1% and 72.6%, respectively. And, the sensitivity (TPR) and specificity (FPR) were 0.92 and 0.28, respectively. Conclusion: These results are more accurate than Li's experimental results calculated with convolution neural network. Google's Teachable Machines show good performance by hyper-parameters tuning in the diagnosis of the tooth-marked tongue. We confirmed that the tool is useful for several clinical applications.

THE EFFECT OF THE LENGTH OF THE LINGUAL FRENUM AND THE TONGUE MOTION ON SPEECH (설소대의 크기와 운동이 발음에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Seong-Hee;Son, Woo-Sung;Kim, Yong-Deok;Shin, Sang-Hun;Kim, Uk-Kyu;Chung, In-Kyo;Kwon, Soon-Bok
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.526-534
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : The objective of this study is to ascertain whether the positive exists among the frenum length, the tongue movement and the speech and to present the normal range of tongue movement and guidelines for the choice of surgery, observation if necessary. Materials and Methods : 180 patients were evaluated. We divided 180 patients into 6 group by age. Each group was separated as follows; the age of 2.5-4, 5-6, 7-9, 10-12, 16-18. We measured the frenal length, the range of tongue motion and evaluated the speech so that we really questioned about the positive relationship between the tongue-tie and speech. We let the patient exercise the protrusive both(right, left) laterotrusive superior movement of the tongue. During these movements, we measured the distance between the vermilion border and the tongue tip. We also measured the distance from the tongue tip to the point contacting the upper lip with dorsum of the tongue during the maximal protrusive movement of the tongue. Three linear measurement of the anterior, inferior segment of the tongue including the lingual frenum, are made. These measurements are as follows: 1. Distance A. Free anterior portion of the tongue from the point of frenular insertion to the tongue tip. 2. Distance B. The distance from the initiating point of the lingual frenum to the point connecting the two sublingual carundcles to the lingual frenum perpendicularly. 3. Distance C. The distance from the point contacting the line crossing the sublingual caruncles with the lingual frenum to the terminating point of the lingual frenum. We transform three linear measures into a statistical ratio, A/(A-B+C), representing the length of the free portion of the tongue compared with the total sublingual dimensions. In addition, we assessed the speech through Picture Consonant Articulation Test(PCAT) and tried to find out the relationship between the length of the lingual frenum and speech. Conclusion : As people are born, they have small and restricted tongue. As people grow old, tongue motions are more liberate, and unrestricted and they can speak so freely. Therefore we suggest that until age 5, oral and maxillofacial surgeons postpone the surgery if not urgent, evaluate the maximal lingual motions and PCAT according to this article and observe their changes.

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Morphological study on the tongue of Korean native goat (한국재래산양 혀에 관한 형태학적 연구)

  • Lee, Heungshik S.;Lee, In-se;Kang, Tae-cheon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.255-264
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    • 1996
  • This studies were carried out to identify the characteristics of the tongue of Korean native goat(Capra hircus) by macroscopy, microscopy and scanning microscopy. Korean native goat had torus linguae, median lingual sulcus, lingual fossa and ventral median fissure but did not have glossoepiglottic fold and terminal sulcus in the tongue. The whole length of tongue was $11.51{\pm}0.76cm$. The length of tongue apex, tongue body, tongue root and the torus linguae were $2.62{\pm}0.28$, $7.39{\pm}0.27$, $1.56{\pm}0.26$ and $6.37{\pm}0.29cm$, respectively. The width of tongue apex, torus linguae and tongue root were $3.41{\pm}0.24$, $3.74{\pm}0.29$ and $3.68{\pm}0.11$, respectively. The thickness of tongue apex was $1.60{\pm}0.10$, and the height of torus linguae was $1.52{\pm}0.15cm$. Filiform papillae were present at the tongue apex and the tongue body rostral to torus linguae. Fungiform papillae were scattered from tongue apex to rostral portion of torus linguae, being in abundance at the tongue apex. Vallate papillae were showed at the lateral portion of torus linguae, while lentiform papillae were present at its central portion. Conical papillae were located between vallate and lentiform papillae. The numbers of filiform, fungiform, conical, vallate and lentiform papillae were $46,980{\pm}1070.98$, $446.8{\pm}36.97$, $818.4{\pm}43.99$, $34.8{\pm}2.77$, and $255.6{\pm}39.30$, respectively. The average numbers of taste bud were $8.3{\pm}2.04$ in a fungiform papilla and $247.3{\pm}37.44$ in a vallate papilla. The filiform papilla had secondary and tertiary papillae. The height of filiform papilla was about $150{\mu}m$ and the diameter was $100{\mu}m$. The diameters of fungiform papillae were 350 to $550{\mu}m$. The long and short diameters of maximum-sized lentiform papilla were 4000 and $3000{\mu}m$, respectively, while those of minimum-sized papilla were 700 and $600{\mu}m$, respectively. The height of conical papillae was 450 to $600{\mu}m$ and diameter was 250 to $450{\mu}m$. The vallate papilla was round or oval in shape and its diameter was 500 to $850{\mu}m$. It had well-developed papillary groove around itself. The modified conical papillae were not observed in the tongue of Korean native goat.

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Design of discriminant function for thick and thin coating from the white coating (백태 중 후태 및 박태 분류 판별함수 설계)

  • Choi, Eun-Ji;Kim, Keun-Ho;Ryu, Hyun-Hee;Lee, Hae-Jung;Kim, Jong-Yeol
    • Korean Journal of Oriental Medicine
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.119-124
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    • 2007
  • Introduction: In Oriental medicine, the status of tongue is the important indicator to diagnose one's health, because it represents physiological and clinicopathological changes of inner parts of the body. The method of tongue diagnosis is not only convenient but also non-invasive, so tongue diagnosis is most widely used in Oriental medicine. By the way, since tongue diagnosis is affected by examination circumstances a lot, its performance depends on a light source, degrees of an angle, a medical doctor's condition etc. Therefore, it is not easy to make an objective and standardized tongue diagnosis. In order to solve this problem, in this study, we tried to design a discriminant function for thick and thin coating with color vectors of preprocessed image. Method: 52 subjects, who were diagnosed as white-coated tongue, were involved. Among them, 45 subjects diagnosed as thin coating and 7 subjects diagnosed as thick coating by oriental medical doctors, and then their tongue images were obtained from a digital tongue diagnosis system. Using those acquired tongue images, we implemented two steps: Preprocessing and image analyzing. The preprocessing part of this method includes histogram equalization and histogram stretching at each color component, especially, intensity and saturation. It makes the difference between tongue substance and tongue coating was more visible, so that we can separate tongue coating easily. Next part, we analyzed the characteristic of color values and found the threshold to divide tongue area into coating area. Then, from tongue coating image, it is possible to extract the variables that were important to classify thick and thin coating. Result : By statistical analysis, two significant vectors, associated with G, were found, which were able to describe the difference between thick and thin coating very well. Using these two variables, we designed the discriminant function for coating classification and examined its performance. As a result, the overall accuracy of thick and thin coating classification was 92.3%. Discussion : From the result, we can expect that the discriminant function is applicable to other coatings in a similar way. Also, it can be used to make an objective and standardized diagnosis.

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Systematic Approach to The Extraction of Effective Region for Tongue Diagnosis (설진 유효 영역 추출의 시스템적 접근 방법)

  • Kim, Keun-Ho;Do, Jun-Hyeong;Ryu, Hyun-Hee;Kim, Jong-Yeol
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SC
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.123-131
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    • 2008
  • In Oriental medicine, the status of a tongue is the important indicator to diagnose the condition of one's health like the physiological and the clinicopathological changes of internal organs in a body. A tongue diagnosis is not only convenient but also non-invasive, and therefore widely used in Oriental medicine. However, the tongue diagnosis is affected by examination circumstances like a light source, patient's posture, and doctor's condition a lot. To develop an automatic tongue diagnosis system for an objective and standardized diagnosis, segmenting a tongue region from a facial image captured and classifying tongue coating are inevitable but difficult since the colors of a tongue, lips, and skin in a mouth are similar. The proposed method includes preprocessing, over-segmenting, detecting the edge with a local minimum over a shading area from the structure of a tongue, correcting local minima or detecting the edge with the greatest color difference, selecting one edge to correspond to a tongue shape, and smoothing edges, where preprocessing consists of down-sampling to reduce computation time, histogram equalization, and edge enhancement, which produces the region of a segmented tongue. Finally, the systematic procedure separated only a tongue region from a face image with a tongue, which was obtained from a digital tongue diagnosis system. Oriental medical doctors' evaluation for the results illustrated that the segmented region excluding a non-tongue region provides important information for the accurate diagnosis. The proposed method can be used for an objective and standardized diagnosis and for an u-Healthcare system.

Tongue of Fatigue by Classification of Sasang Constitution and Qi Blood Pattern Identification (특발성 피로의 사상체질 및 기혈변증 설진 분석)

  • Choi, Na-Rae;Park, Soo-Jung;Joo, Jong-Cheon;Kwon, Young-Mi
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.379-387
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    • 2015
  • Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the relevance of Sasang constitution, Qi Blood pattern identification, and tongue diagnosis in subjects complaining of fatigue.Methods Seventy-three subjects who complained of fatigue were assessed using the Chalder Fatigue Scale, tongue diagnosis, pattern identification questionnaire and Sasang constitution diagnosis. The association of tongue diagnosis with Qi Blood pattern identification and Sasang constitution was evaluated.Results 1. There was no significant association between tongue diagnosis and Sasang constitution.2. Tongue color, which is one of the diagnostic indicators in tongue diagnosis, was redder in the Qi stagnation group than in the Qi deficiency and Blood deficiency groups.Conclusions Tongue diagnosis can be utilized in future if proper research regarding Sasang constitution and Sasang constitution pattern identification is conducted.

A Comparative Study on the Tongue Diagnosis between Korean medicine and Ayurveda (한의학과 아유르베다에서의 설진(舌診)에 대한 비교 연구)

  • Jung, A Ram;Lee, Hye-Yoon;Hwang, Man-Suk
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.63-71
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze Tongue Diagnosis of Korean medicine with that of Ayurveda. Methods: In this article, first we introduced concept of Tongue Diagnosis based on physiological view. Further, we also reviewed published works including books and articles. Then, we reviewed Ayurveda to find similar concepts to Vicera Assignment on Tongue, and analyzed the comparison between the relevant contents of Korean medicine and Ayurveda. Results: In Ayurveda, they divided vicera into two part (right and left) and some elements of vicera were assigned to either side of divided tongue. In Korean medicine, a tongue is divide into three parts of Sangcho(上焦, Shang Jiao), Jungcho(中焦, Zhong Jiao) and Hacho(下焦, Xia Jaio) ; similarly, in Ayurveda, they divide a tongue into three regions of VATA, PITTA, KAPHA. Conclusion: It can be inferred from the relationship between portions of a tongue and vicera of a body that Korean medicine and Ayurveda have a close relationship.