• Title, Summary, Keyword: tongue

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Tongue Image Segmentation via Thresholding and Gray Projection

  • Liu, Weixia;Hu, Jinmei;Li, Zuoyong;Zhang, Zuchang;Ma, Zhongli;Zhang, Daoqiang
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.945-961
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    • 2019
  • Tongue diagnosis is one of the most important diagnostic methods in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Tongue image segmentation aims to extract the image object (i.e., tongue body), which plays a key role in the process of manufacturing an automated tongue diagnosis system. It is still challenging, because there exists the personal diversity in tongue appearances such as size, shape, and color. This paper proposes an innovative segmentation method that uses image thresholding, gray projection and active contour model (ACM). Specifically, an initial object region is first extracted by performing image thresholding in HSI (i.e., Hue Saturation Intensity) color space, and subsequent morphological operations. Then, a gray projection technique is used to determine the upper bound of the tongue body root for refining the initial object region. Finally, the contour of the refined object region is smoothed by ACM. Experimental results on a dataset composed of 100 color tongue images showed that the proposed method obtained more accurate segmentation results than other available state-of-the-art methods.

The Clinical Study of Tongue Change in Diabetes Mellitus Patients as Oriental Diagnostic Method (糖尿환자의 27例의 舌診에 關한 臨床 硏究)

  • Seo, Gan-soo;Kim, Dong-woung
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.212-221
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    • 1999
  • Tongue examination is the most unique and important diagnostic method of oriental medicine. It reveals patients condition and give some information about direction of therapy and background of disease as well as produces clue of duration of disease changing that grasps it from outside. The aims of this study show that results of tongue examination is related to somewhat special pattern. we study 27 patients(age of means: 63.01 years old, male: 14, female: 13) who come to Wonkwang University Oriental-Medicine Hospital at Chonju with diabetes mellitus or diabetes mellitus complications. Tongue colors of this study result in pale-red 8 cases, pale 6 cases, red 6 cases, crimson 5 cases, blue-green-purple 2 cases and tongue fur of this study result in white-fur 16 cases, yellow-fur 7 cases, black-fur 1 case, none-fur 3 cases. And the condition of tongue fur with grimy and thin result in thin-white-fur 12 cases, white-grimy-fur 4 cases, thin-yellow-fur 5 cases, grimy-yellow-fur 2 cases, black-fur 1 case. Means level of fasting glucose during 7 days was $223.24{\pm}32.l7mg/dl$ and postprandial 2hours was $286.37{\pm}24.54mg/dl$ There were no changes in tongue body and tongue color but changes occur in tongue fur with 9cases in this period. 5 cases of patient make a difference between FBS(fasting blood glucose) and postprandial blood glucose level more than l00mg/dl (2 cases of patient with thin-white-fur gradually turned to slight-yellow-fur. There were no changes in 2 cases of patient with crimson-none-fur and pale-white-fur. 1 case of patient with slimy-yellow-fur turned to black fur.) 11 cases of patient had lesser than $10\%$ hemoglobin $A_lC$ and tongue color of these patient were pale-red 5cases, pale 2 cases, red 2 cases, crimson 2 cases. 16 cases of patient had more than $10\%$ Hemoglobin $A_1C$ and tongue color of these patients were pale-red 3 cases, pale 4 cases, red 4 cases, crimson 3 cases, blue 2 cases. This result shows that quantity of Hemoglobin $A_1C$ make a somewhat role in tongue color. The above results show that tongue color, fur color, condition and change of fur in diabetes mellitus patients is various in pale-red, pale, crimson, none-fur. So it is difficult to give an exact diagnosis on pathology of diabetes mellitus only with tongue examination because there are a little matches between blood glucose level, prevalence-period, short-term blood glucose regulation and tongue and fur colors.

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The Study on Relationship of Dampness-Phlegm Tongue Diagnosis to hyperlipidemia in Stroke Patients (중풍 환자의 습담 설진과 고지혈증의 연관성에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Ji-Sun;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Shin, Hyun-Soo;Jo, Chang-Hwan;Lee, Jae-Hwi;Kang, Byeong-Gab;An, Joung-Jo;Jo, Hyun-Kyung;Yoo, Ho-Rhyong;Seol, In-Chan;Kim, Yun-Sik
    • The Journal of the Society of Korean Medicine Diagnostics
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.24-33
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : This study was aimed to clarify the relationship between the tongue diagnosis of dampness-phlegm and hyperlipidemia in acute stroke patients. Methods : We analyzed the data of 1405 patients with acute stroke in 10 oriental medical hospitals from November 2006 to December 2008. We classified patients into two groups, dampness-phlegm and non dampness-phlegm by tongue diagnosis such as the white coating of the tongue, thick coating of the tongue, swollen tongue and teeth printed tongue which is oriental medical diagnosis. And We analyzed their characteristics with type of stroke and lipid blood level. Results : 1. There was no significant difference of stroke type between the dampness-phlegm tongue diagnosis group and the non dampness-phlegm tongue diagnosis group. 2. The ratio of SVO was higher in dampness-phlegm tongue diagnosis group (76.06%) than the non dampness-phlegm tongue diagnosis group (61.26%). 3. According to the blood test, the dampness-phlegm tongue diagnosis group showed higher in total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride than the control group. 4. Total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were significant higher in dampness-phlegm tongue diagnosis than the control group. Conclusion : According to the analysis, the relationship between the tongue diagnosis of dampness-phlegm and hyperlipidemia in acute stroke patients were more clarified. Based on these results, more prospective studies are to be done with more clinical data.

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Coated Tongue Region Extraction using the Fluorescence Response of the Tongue Coating by Ultraviolet Light Source (설태의 자외선 형광 반응을 이용한 설태 영역 추출)

  • Choi, Chang-Yur;Lee, Woo-Beom;Hong, You-Sik;Nam, Dong-Hyun;Lee, Sang-Suk
    • The Journal of the Institute of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 2012
  • An effective extraction method for extracting a coated tongue is proposed in this paper, which is used as the diagnostic criteria in the tongue diagnosis. Proposed method uses the fluorescence response characteristics of the coated tongue that is occurred by using the ultraviolet light. Specially, this method can solved the previous problems including the issue in the limits of the diagnosis environment and in the objectivity of the diagnosis results. In our method, original tongue image is acquired by using the ultraviolet light, and binarization is performed by thresholding a valley-points in the histogram that corresponds to the color difference of tongue body and tongue coating. Final view image is presented to the oriental doctor, after applying the canny-edge algorithm to the binary image, and edge image is added to the original image. In order to evaluate the performance of the our proposed method, after building a various tongue image, we compared the true region of coated tongue by the oriental doctor's hand with the extracted region by the our method. As a result, the proposed method showed the average 87.87% extraction ratio. The shape of the extracted coated tongue region showed also significantly higher similarity.

The Development of a Tongue Diagnosis System and the Evaluation of Reproducibility (설진 시스템 개발 및 재현성 평가)

  • Jeon, Young-Ju;Kim, Keun-Ho;Do, Jun-Hyeong;Ryu, Hyun-Hee;Kim, Jong-Yeol
    • Korean Journal of Oriental Medicine
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.97-102
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    • 2008
  • The tongue diagnosis is a diagnostic method in the oriental medicine that uses shape, substance, coating, and movement of the tongue to determine the condition of health and disease characteristics in human. Since this information, however, could be affected by subjective sense and visual information, it is difficult to obtain the objective and reproducible results. This research aims at building a reproducible tongue diagnosis system using color chart that is attached close to the face contact region. The picture of color chart is taken simultaneously with a tongue and applied to color revision. The system, in addition, is focused on providing a clear tongue image through securing a sufficient photographing distance with a surface coating mirror. The lightning part which can suppress the reflection by sputum in maximum is implemented for the objectification and quantification of the tongue diagnosis system. The face contact region is designed for consideration of a testee's convenience. To evaluate the reproducibility of the system, the CVs (coefficient of variance, %) of $L{\ast}$, $a{\ast}$ and $b{\ast}$ of red, green and blue regions in color chart are calculated, respectively. The results of all CVs shows that the tongue diagnosis system is re liable and those consequences contribute to the objectification and quantification of the tongue diagnosis system.

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THE MANAGEMENT OF TONGUE BITE IN A PATIENT OF CEREBRAL PALSY AFTER DENTAL TREATMENT UNDER GENERAL ANESTHESIA -CASE REPORTT- (뇌성마비환자의 전신마취 하 치과치료 후 혀 깨물기 손상 관리)

  • Shin, Teo-Jeon;Seo, Kwang-Suk;Kim, Hyun-Jeong;Park, Sung-Soo;Kim, Hye-Jeong;Yang, So-Young
    • The Journal of Korea Assosiation for Disability and Oral Health
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.116-119
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    • 2010
  • Trauma to the lips and tongue can occur by accidental self-biting after dental treatment. After local anesthesia, it is likely that the patient may feel painless even in biting the tongue. In case of young children and disabled patients, the dentists should be careful not to bite the tongue. In this report, we present a case of deep lingual laceration due to biting the tongue in the course of dental treatment under general anesthesia. A 33 year-old male was transferred to our hospital to treat tongue laceration. Before 2 hour on arrival, he had received dental care under general anesthesia at a dental hospital for the disabled because of cooperation difficulty and cerebral palsy. During recovery from general anesthesia, he tried to bite his own tongue involuntary. The doctors and nurses tried to prevent the patient from being injured. Despite these efforts, massive bleeding occurred from the injured sites of the tongue. Because we could not communicate with him, we decided to evaluate the extent of the injury and treat the injured sites under general anesthesia. The laceration wound was sutured for nearly 1 hr general anesthesia. During recovery we inserted mouth prop into the oral cavity to prevent further injuries from tongue biting. After full recovery from general anesthesia he didn't try to bite his tongue. After 4 hour admission, he was discharged without other complications.

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Trends in Tongue Color and Heart Rate Variability in Chronic Dyspepsia Patients (만성 소화불량증 환자에서 설 색상과 심박변이도의 경향성 파악)

  • Kim, Ji-hye;Jeong, Chang-jin;Kim, Keun-ho
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.348-360
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    • 2015
  • Objectives From observing the tongue of a patient, one can assess the health status; this method has been frequently used in traditional Korean Medicine (KM) clinics. In particular, KM posits that the color of the tongue is highly related to digestive functions. In this study, the color of tongue and heart rate variability (HRV) were compared between chronic dyspepsia (CD) patients and healthy subjects. Methods Healthy subjects and CD patients with functional dyspepsia (FD), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), or chronic gastritis (CG) were enrolled for the study. Profile view images of the tongue were acquired by using a computerized tongue image acquisition system (CTIS). The color of the tongue body was extracted from the non-coated region on the tongue images. Results Color differences in CIE L*a*b* color space between the three sub-types of CD patients and healthy subjects were analyzed by using multiple linear regression analysis with age and sex as the factors. The variable b* was significantly lower in GERD patients than in the controls (p=0.017). Variable a* was significantly lower in CG than in the controls (p=0.03). No significant difference was seen between FD and controls. In GERD, the tongue body seems to be intense red in color; in CG, pale red. Frequency domain analysis showed that HF was significantly lower in GERD patients than in the controls (p=0.041). Conclusions The color of the tongue body and HF of HRV can be used for diagnosing digestive functions in health care.

Profile and Survival of Tongue Cancer Patients in "Dharmais" Cancer Hospital, Jakarta

  • Sutandyo, Noorwati;Ramli, Ramadhan;Sari, Lenny;Soeis, Dewi Syafriyetti
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.1971-1975
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    • 2014
  • Background: Tongue cancer is still a major health problem in most developing countries around the world. Statistics shown the number of tongue cancers, especially in early age, to be increasing, with poor survival. Objective: To analyze the characteristic profile of tongue cancer patients in Indonesia as well as the survival rate. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Dharmais National Cancer Hospital by collecting general, clinical, and survival data of tongue cancer patients from medical records for January 2009 to April 2012. Results: Tongue cancer incidence increased year by year. The average age of tongue cancer patients was 47.5 years, and males predominated, accounting for 64.5% of cases. Most patients presented at an advanced stage (69.6%). The histopathology type was squamous cell carcinoma in the vast majoriy (96.8%). The therapies applied were surgery (45.6%), radiation (63.6%) and chemotherapy (57.6%). The survival rate after one year is 60.6% and after two years was 12.1%. In addition, median survival of tongue cancer patients was 20 months (95% confidence interval 9.07-30.9). The significant factor affecting survival was size of tumor with a hazard ratio of 3.18 (95% CI, 1.02-9.93; p 0.046) for largest versus smallest categories. Conclusions: In each year, the number of tongue cancer incidents in Indonesia is increasing. The age of tongue cancer patients in Indonesia is younger compared to other countries. Moreover, the survival rates are not high.

Characteristics of Oral Tongue and Base of the Tongue Cancer: A Hospital Cancer Registry Based Analysis

  • Krishnatreya, Manigreeva;Nandy, Pintu;Rahman, Tashnin;Sharma, Jagannath Dev;Das, Anupam;Kataki, Amal Chandra;Das, Ashok Kumar;Das, Rajjjyoti
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.1371-1374
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    • 2015
  • Background: Tongue cancer is one of the leading sites of cancer in our population. Aim: To evaluate the socio-demographic profiles and stages at diagnosis of oral tongue (OT) and base of tongue (BT) cancers, and identify any possible variations in characteristics. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on tongue cancer cases, divided into OT and BT, registered at the hospital cancer registry of North-East India during January 2010 to May 2013. Cases were analyzed for age, gender, residential status and different levels of education for patients, the stage at diagnosis and presence of distant metastasis. Results: A total of 1,113 cases of tongue cancers were registered, 846(76.1%) of BT and 267(23.9%) of OT. While 33.9% of BT cancer patients were above 65 years of age, the figure for OT cancers was 18.4%, stages III and IV accounting for 90.8% and 77%, respectively. The relative risk for distant metastasis in OT cancers was 3.3 (95% CI 1.08-10.1, p=0.03). Conclusions: In the subsites of tongue cancers in our population, the majority arose from the base of tongue, these tending to occur in older individuals and presenting at late stage.

Analysis of Correlation among Oral Environment, Oral Myofunction, and Oral Microorganisms

  • Kim, Seol-Hee
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.96-106
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    • 2019
  • Background: Factors affecting oral function include tooth number, oral muscle strength, and oral diseases. This study aimed to investigate the relationship among oral environment, muscle, and microbiology. Methods: Fifty-six elderly individuals in a day care center were included in the study. The survey regarding tongue and lip muscle strength and oral microorganisms was conducted from November to December 2018. Results: Tongue and lip muscle strength were greater in men than women (p>0.05). Tongue muscle strength was greater in the ${\leq}80-year-old$ group ($34.94{\pm}9.85$) than the ${\geq}90-year-old$ group ($25.57{\pm}7.54$) (p<0.05). Tongue muscle strength and lip muscle strength were greater in the ${\geq}15$ functional teeth group ($34.08{\pm}9.31$ and $9.25{\pm}1.63$, respectively) than in the <15 functional teeth group ($28.08{\pm}7.53$ and $7.76{\pm}1.51$, respectively) (p<0.05). Age was significantly correlated with functional tooth number, denture use, and tongue muscle strength. The number of functional teeth was positively correlated with tongue muscle strength, lip muscle strength, and oral microorganisms. Denture use was negatively correlated with tongue and lip muscle strength. Tongue muscle strength was significantly correlated with lip muscle strength. The number of Eubacterium nodatum was higher in men than women. The number of Parvimonas micra and Enterococcus faecalis was higher in the groups with ${\geq}15$ functional teeth, denture use, and greater tongue and lip muscle strength. The number of Lactobacillus casei was higher in the group that uses dentures and with greater tongue strength. Conclusion: Oral microbiology is more important in oral environment and management than oral muscle function. The correlation between oral muscle and oral microorganism requires further study. Therefore, oral care training should be conducted to improve the oral care practice of elderly individuals, maintain oral health through oral care, and prevent the decrease in saliva secretion by aging.