• Title/Summary/Keyword: transcranial magnetic stimulation

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The development of a high efficient transcranial magnetic stimulation adopted real time-charging-discharging circuit

  • Kim, Whi-Young;Park, Sung-Joon
    • Journal of IKEEE
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2010
  • In this study, we have been proposed the new type of a transcranial magnetic stimulation adopted a variable voltage capacitor with Cockcroft-Walton circuit and constant-frequency current resonant half-bridge inverter. This a transcranial magnetic stimulation has some merits compared with the conventional one. First, it doesn't require the high voltage transformer. And second, it has less switching losses, compact size and capability in adjusting the transcranial magnetic stimulation output energy precisely. In this paper, we have performed the output characteristics of a transcranial magnetic stimulation system which is well known as magnetic stimulation. The tested results are described as a function of pulse repetition rate and switching numbers of the half-bridge inverter.

Changes in Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase Immune Response Cells of Cerebral Ischaemia Induced Rat by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Alternating Current Approach

  • Koo, Hyun-Mo;Kim, Whi-Young
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.357-364
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    • 2014
  • This study examined effect of a transcranial magnetic stimulation device with a commercial-frequency approach on the neuronal cell death caused ischemia. For a simple transcranial magnetic stimulation device, the experiment was conducted on an ischemia induced rat by transcranial magnetic stimulation of a commercial-frequency approach, controlling the firing angle using a Triac power device. The transcranial magnetic stimulation device was controlled at a voltage of 220 V 60 Hz and the trigger of the Triac gate was varied from $45^{\circ}$ up to $135^{\circ}$. Cerebral ischemia was caused by ligating the common carotid artery of male SD rats and reperfusion was performed again to blood after 5 minutes. Protein Expression was examined by Western blotting and the immune response cells reacting to the antibodies of Poly ADP ribose polymerase in the cerebral nerve cells. As a result, for the immune response cells of Poly ADP ribose polymerase related to necrosis, the transcranial magnetic stimulation device suppressed necrosis and had a protective effect on nerve cells. The effect was greatest within 12 hours after ischemia. Therefore, it is believed that in the case of brain damage caused by ischemia, the function of brain cells can be restored and the impairment can be improved by the application of transcranial magnetic stimulation.

TreatmentWD Pulse Application for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

  • Ha, Dong-Ho;Kim, Jun-Il;Lee, Sun-Min;Bo, Gak-Hwang;Kim, Whi-Young;Choi, Sun-Seob
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.36-41
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    • 2012
  • The transcranial magnetic stimulation recharges the energy storing condenser, and sends the stored energy in the condenser to the pulse shaping circuit, which then delivers it to the stimulating coil. The previous types of transcranial magnetic stimulation required a booster transformer, secondary rectifier for high voltages and a condenser for smooth type. The energy storing condenser is recharged by switching the high-voltage direct current power. Loss occurs due to the resistance in the recharging circuit, and the single-pulse output energy in the transcranial magnetic stimulation can be changed because the recharging voltage cannot be adjusted. In this study a booster transformer, which decreases the volume and weight, was not used. Instead, a current resonance inverter was applied to cut down the switching loss. A transcranial magnetic stimulation, which can simultaneously alter the recharging voltage and pulse repeats, was used to examine the output characteristics.

3 Stage 2 Switch Application for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

  • Ha, Dong-Ho;Kim, Whi-Young;Choi, Sun-Seob
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.234-239
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    • 2011
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation utilizes the method of controlling applied time and changing pulse by output pulse through power density control for diagnosis purposes. Transcranial magnetic stimulation can also be used in cases where diagnosis and treatment are difficult since output pulse shape can be changed. As intensity, pulse range, and pulse shape of the stimulation pulse must be changed according to lesion, the existing sine wave-shaped stimulation treatment pulse poses limitations in achieving various treatments and diagnosis. This study actualized a new method of transcranial magnetic stimulation that applies a 3 Stage 2 Switch( power semiconductor 2EA) for controlling pulse repetition rate by achieving numerous switching control of stimulation coil. Intensity, pulse range, and pulse shape of output can be freely changed to transform various treatment pulses in order to overcome limitations in stimulation treatment presented by the previous sine wave pulse shape. The method of freely changing pulse range by using 3 Stage 2 Switch discharge method is proposed. Pulse shape, composed of various pulse ranges, was created by grafting PFN (Pulsed Forming Network) through AVR AT80S8535 one-chip microprocessor technology, and application in transcranial magnetic stimulation was achieved to study the output characteristics of stimulation treatment pulse according to delaying time of the trigger signal applied in section switch.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters as neurophysiological biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease

  • Lee, Juyoun;Lee, Ae Young
    • Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.7-16
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    • 2021
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a safe and noninvasive tool for investigating the cortical excitability of the human brain and the neurophysiological functions of GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic neural circuits. Neurophysiological biomarkers based on TMS parameters can provide information on the pathophysiology of dementia, and be used to diagnose Alzheimer's disease and differentiate different types of dementia. This review introduces the basic principles of TMS, TMS devices and stimulating paradigms, several neurophysiological measurements, and the clinical implications of TMS for Alzheimer's disease.

Effects of Motor Imagery Practice in Conjunction with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Stroke Patients

  • Ji, Sang-Goo;Cha, Hyun-Gyu;Kim, Ki-Jong;Kim, Myoung-Kwon
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.181-184
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    • 2014
  • The aim of the present study was to examine whether motor imagery (MI) practice in conjunction with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to stroke patients could improve theirgait ability. This study was conducted with 29 subjects diagnosed with hemiparesis due to stroke.The experimental group consisted of 15 members who were performed MI practice in conjunction with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, while the control group consisted of 14 members who were performed MI practice and sham therapy. Both groups received traditional physical therapy for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for 6 weeks; additionally, they received mental practice for 15 minutes. The experimental group was instructed to perform rTMS and the control group was instructed to apply sham stimulation for 15 minutes. Gait analysis was performed using a three-dimensional motion capture system, which is a real-time tracking device that delivers data via infrared reflective markers using six cameras. Results showed that the velocity, step length, and cadence of both groups were significantly improved after the practice (p<0.05). Significant differences were found between the groups in velocity and cadence (p<0.05) as well as with respect to the change rate (p<0.05) after practice. The results showed that MI practice in conjunction with rTMS is more effective in improving gait ability than MI practice alone.

The Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on the Gait of Acute Stroke Patients

  • Ji, Sang-Goo;Kim, Myoung-Kwon
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.129-132
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    • 2015
  • The aim of the present study was to examine whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can improve gait ability of acute stage stroke patients. This study was conducted with 39 subjects who were diagnosed as having a hemiparesis due to stroke. The experimental group included 20 subjects who underwent repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and the control group included 19 subjects who underwent sham therapy. The stroke patients in the experimental group underwent conventional rehabilitation therapy and rTMS was applied daily to the hotspot of the lesional hemisphere. The stroke patients in the control group underwent sham rTMS and conventional rehabilitation therapy. Participants in both groups received therapy five days per week for four weeks. Temporospatial gait characteristics, such as stance phase, swing phase, step length in affected side, velocity, and cadence, were assessed before and after the four week therapy period. A significant difference was observed in post-treatment gains for the step length in the affected side, velocity, and cadence between the experimental group and control group ( p < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed between the two groups on stance phase and swing phase ( p > 0.05). We conclude that rTMS may be beneficial in improving the effects of acute stage stroke on gait ability.

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Treat Depression and Insomnia with Chronic Low Back Pain

  • Park, Eun Jung;Lee, Se Jin;Koh, Do Yle;Han, Yoo Mi
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.285-289
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    • 2014
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive and safe technique for motor cortex stimulation. TMS is used to treat neurological and psychiatric disorders, including mood and movement disorders. TMS can also treat several types of chronic neuropathic pain. The pain relief mechanism of cortical stimulation is caused by modifications in neuronal excitability. Depression is a common co-morbidity with chronic pain. Pain and depression should be treated concurrently to achieve a positive outcome. Insomnia also frequently occurs with chronic lower back pain. Several studies have proposed hypotheses for TMS pain management. Herein, we report two cases with positive results for the treatment of depression and insomnia with chronic low back pain by TMS.

Effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Cognitive Function (경두개 자기 자극이 인지 기능에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang Min;Chae, Jeong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.89-101
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    • 2016
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a safe, noninvasive and useful technique for exploring brain function. Especially, for the study of cognition, the technique can modulate a cognitive performance if the targeted area is engaged, because TMS has an effect on cortical network. The effect of TMS can vary depending on the frequency, intensity, and timing of stimulation. In this paper, we review the studies with TMS targeting various regions for evaluation of cognitive function. Cognitive functions, such as attention, working memory, semantic decision, discrimination and social cognition can be improved or deteriorated according to TMS stimulation protocols. Furthermore, potential therapeutic applications of TMS, including therapy in a variety of illness and research into cortical localization, are discussed.

Arm Cortex S3C2440 Microcontroller Application for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation's Pulse Forming on Bax Reactive Cells and Cell Death in Ischemia Induced Rats

  • Tac, Han-Ho;Kim, Whi-Young
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.266-272
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    • 2016
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation devices has been used mainly for diagnostic purposes by measuring the functions of the nervous system rather than for treatment purposes, and has a problem of considerable energy fluctuations per repeated pulse. The majority of strokes are caused by ischemia and result in brain tissue damage, leading to problems of the central nervous system including hemiparesis, dysfunction of language and consciousness, and dysfunction of perception. Control is difficult and the size is large due to the difficulty of digitalizing the energy stored in a capacitor, and there are many heavy devices. In addition, there are many constraints when it is used for a range of purposes such as head and neck diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of nerve palsy, muscle strengthening, treatment of urinary incontinence etc. Output stabilization and minimization of the energy variation rate are required as the level of the transcranial magnetic stimulation device is dramatically improved and the demand for therapeutic purposes increases. This study developed a compact, low cost transcranial magnetic stimulation device with minimal energy variation of a high repeated pulse and output stabilization using a real time capacitor charge discharge voltage. Ischemia was induced in male SD rats by closing off the common carotid artery for 5 minutes, after which the blood was re-perfused. In the cerebrum, the number of PARP reactive cells after 24 hours significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the TMS group compared to the GI group. As a result, TMS showed the greatest effect on necrosis-related PARP immuno-reactive cells 24 hours after ischemia, indicating necrosis inhibition, blocking of neural cell death, and protection of neural cells.