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Analysis of Diagnostic Performance of CT and EUS for Clinical TN Staging of Gastric Cancer (위암의 임상적 병기 설정을 위한 전산화단층촬영 및 초음파 내시경의 진단력 평가)

  • Shin, Ru-Mi;Lee, Ju-Hee;Lee, Moon-Soo;Park, Do-Joong;Kim, Hyung-Ho;Yang, Han-Kwang;Lee, Kuhn-Uk
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.177-185
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: Preoperative clinical staging of gastric cancer is very important for determining the treatment plans and predicting the prognosis. The previous reports regarding the accuracy of computed tomography or endoscopic ultrasound for the preoperative staging of gastric cancer have shown various outcomes. We analyzed the diagnostic performance of CT and EUS, which are important staging tools for the staging of TN gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 1,174 patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer at Seoul National University Bundang Hostpital from May, 2003 to December, 2007. We derived the Kappa value to examine the agreement of the preoperative staging obtained from CT and EUS with the pathological staging. Results: The mean age of the 1,174 patients was $59.31{\pm}11.98$ years. Six hundred thirty seven patients had early gastric cancer and 536 had advanced gastric cancer. The diagnostic performance between CT and EUS for the T staging showed no significant difference between CT and EUS for the kappa values. The kappa values showed moderate agreement at 0.4039 (P=0.021) and 0.4201 (P=0.026), respectively. This suggests that there is no difference between the two examinations for the overall T staging. Analysis of the discrimination of mucosal and submucosal lesions with EUS showed an accuracy of 58.92% and a Kappa value of 0.206 (P<0.001), suggesting fair agreement and a lower diagnostic performance than expected. To differentiate lesions with stages higher than or equal to T2 or T3 from the lesion with stages lower than T2 or T3, respectively, adoption of the higher stage from the CT staging or the EUS staging showed a larger AUC of 0.84 than that from either stage alone. The CT-derived node stage had the higher diagnostic performance (68.55%) than that of the EUS-derived node stage (60.82%) for the node staging. Conclusion: The CT-derived stage and EUS-derived stage showed comparable results for determining the T stage of gastric cancer. Yet the higher stage of the two stages from CT and EUS most accurately discriminated between those lesions with stages higher than T2 and those lesions with stages lower than T2.

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Relationship Between Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Using Ultrasonography and Diagnostic Indices of Metabolic Syndrome (초음파를 이용한 경동맥 내-중막 두께와 대사증후군 진단지표의 연관성)

  • Ko, Kyung-Sun;Heo, Kyung-Hwa;Won, Yong-Lim;Lee, Sung-Kook;Kim, Ki-Woong
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.285-291
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    • 2009
  • The aim of the present study was undertaken to investigate the association between diagnostic indices of metabolic syndrome(MetS) with carotid intima-media thickness using ultrasonography. The participants in the study were 315 male employees without carotid atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular disease. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute. Written informed consent for the participants in this study was obtained from all individuals. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical characteristics were done using each specific equipments and the NCEP-ATP III criteria were used to define MetS. They were examined by B-mode ultrasound to measure the carotid intima-media thickness(carotid IMT) at the near and far walls of common carotid and bifurcation(bulb). The mean carotid IMT was $0.739{\pm}0.137\;mm$ and it's thickness significantly increased with the increase in age. Also, amounts of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride and fasting glucose were significantly increased with the increase in age. Carotid IMT were significantly correlated with BMI(r=0.170, p=0.004), systolic(r=0.148, p=0.011) and diastolic blood pressure(r=0.123, p=0.036) and HDL-cholesterol(r=-0.164, p=0.005). On multiple logistic regression analysis for the diagnostic indices of MetS, carotid IMT were significantly associated with blood pressure(OR=4.220, p<0.01) and MetS(OR=1.301, p<0.05). The results indicate that blood pressure and MetS are important risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis.

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Multicenter clinical study on birth weight and associated anomalies of single umbilical artery (단일 배꼽 동맥 환아의 출생체중과 동반기형에 관한 다기관 연구)

  • Bae, Su-Nam;Lim, Jae-Woo;Ko, Kyong-Og;Jin, Hyun-Seung;Kim, Min-Hee;Lee, Bo-Young;Kim, Chun-Soo;Kim, Eun-Ryoung;Park, Sang-Kee;Lee, Jung-Joo
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.655-660
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : To compare birth weight between infants with a single umbilical artery (SUA) and normal infants, investigate the associated anomalies of infants with SUA and isolated SUA (no abnormality of external appearance on birth, except SUA), and determine the prognosis of infants with isolated SUA. Methods : Live-born infants with SUA (n=59) detected by physical examination from among 15,193 live births in seven university hospitals in Korea between January 1, 2004, to August 1, 2007, were reviewed retrospectively, with 236 normal infants serving as the control group. Results : A statistical difference was observed between the groups in birth weight and in vitro fertilization. The incidence of infants with SUA was 0.37%. Congenital malformations were observed in 21 infants with cardiovascular (n=15, 25.4%), gastrointestinal (n=2, 3.4%), genitourinary (n=9, 15.3%), neuromusculoskeletal (n=6, 10.2%), central nervous system (n=1, 1.7%), chromosomal (n=1, 1.7%), and other (n=3, 5.1%) abnormalities. There were 49 (83.1%) infants with isolated SUA in this study population; among them, the associated congenital malformations were cardiovascular (n=6, 12.2%) and genitourinary (n=6, 12.2%) abnormalities. Two infants with cyanotic heart disease were operated and four infants with acyanotic heart disease showed improvements without any treatment. Six infants with genitourinary abnormalities on renal ultrasound had mild hydronephrosis without further consequences. Conclusion : The incidence of structural abnormalities in the cardiovascular and genitourinary systems is high and the genitourinary anomalies associated with isolated SUA have relatively good prognosis.

A study of the development of macrovascular complications and factors related to these complications in young adults with childhood/adolescence-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (소아청소년기에 1형 당뇨병으로 진단된 젊은 성인에서 대혈관 합병증의 발생과 이에 연관된 인자에 대한 연구)

  • Kang, Min Jae;Kim, Joo Hwa;Chung, Hye Rim;Lee, Young Ah;Shin, Choong Ho;Yang, Sei Won;Kim, You Yeh;Jin, Seon Mi;Noh, Chung Il
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.220-226
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : Macrovascular complications are the main cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The purpose of this study was to clarify the presence of early vascular changes and to assess the risk factors of macrovascular complications in young adults with T1DM diagnosed in childhood and adolescence. Methods : Seventy-two patients ($23.9{\pm}2.4$ years) with T1DM diagnosed before 18 years of age and twenty normal controls were included. The incidence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and other risk factors of macrovascular complication were reviewed. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and mean intima-media thickness (IMT) measured by ultrasound were compared between patients and control subjects, and their correlations with macrovascular risk factors were analyzed. Results : Of the 72 patients, 32 (44.4%) had hypertension. The proportions of maleness (P=0.03) and mean body mass index (P=0.04) were higher in the hypertensive patients than in normotensive patients. Thirty-one (N=69, 44.9%) patients had dyslipidemia and LDL-cholesterol was positively correlated with mean HbA1c (r=0.32, P=0.008) and total daily insulin dose (r=0.27, P=0.02). The mean IMT was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects ($0.43{\pm}0.06$ mm vs $0.39{\pm}0.06$ mm, P=0.03). There was no difference in the value of FMD between patients and controls, but the duration of the disease after pubertal onset was negatively correlated with FMD (r=-0.34, P=0.01). Conclusion : Hypertension, dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic vascular change were observed in young adults with T1DM diagnosed during childhood and adolescence; this strongly suggests that meticulous screening of macrovascular complications and control of their risk factors should be conducted.

Predictive Value for Vesicoureteral Reflux in Children with Urinary Tract Infection (요로감염 환아에서 방광요관 역류를 예측할 수 있는 인자에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Seung-Hyun;Noh, Sung-Hoon;Oh, Jeung-Eun;Kim, Min-Sun;Lee, Dae-Yeol
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.62-69
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: The most concerning issue in children with urinary tract infection(UTI) is the probability of underlying genitourinary anomalies and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), which is frequently associated with renal scarring and eventually end-stage renal disease. Therefore, voiding cystourethrography(VCUG) is usually recommended at the earliest convenient time for children with UTI. However, VCUG is an invasive procedure that requires catheterization and exposure to X-ray. In this study, we aimed to determine the predictability of clinical, laboratory and imaging parameters for VUR in children with UTI. Methods: Data of children with bacteriologically proven UTI who underwent VCUG were evaluated retrospectively for clinical(age, gender, fever), laboratory(leukocytosis, ESR, CRP, pyuria, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine) and imaging(renal ultrasound and DMSA renal scan) findings. First, children with UTI were divided into two groups according to the presence of VUR as non-VUR group and with VUR group, and clinical, laboratory variables were compared between these groups. Second, patients who had VUR were reclassified as low-grade VUR(grade I-II) group and high-grade(grade III-V) VUR group according to grading of VUR, and clinical, laboratory and imaging variables were compared between these groups. Results: Among 410 children with UTI, 137 had VUR and 78 high-grade VUR. Fever, leukocytosis, ESR, CRP, pyuria were associated with VUR. In addition, abnormal findings of ultrasonography and DMSA renal scan were closely related to VUR. However, these clinical and laboratory variable in patients with high grade VUR were not different significantly, compared to those with low-grade VUR group. Conclusion: Fever, leukocytosis, ESR, CRP seems to be potentially useful predictors of VUR in pediatric patients with UTI. In addition, renal ultrasonography and DMSA renal scan findings supported the presence of VUR. Further study of these findings could limit unnecessary VCUG in patients with UTI.

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Comparison of the Dietary Factors between Normal and Osteopenia Groups by Bone Mineral Density in Korean Female College Students (골밀도 분류에 의한 정상군과 골감소증군 여대생의 식사관련 요인 비교)

  • Choi, Ji-Hee;Kim, Soon-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.7
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    • pp.869-878
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline data on nutritional management of women's bone health. We examined the bone mineral density (BMD) by ultrasound bone densitometer, anthropometric measurement and dietary intake to assess the nutrient intakes. The subjects were 102 Korean female college students (normal=59, bone disease group [osteopenia+osteoporosis]=43) and the mean age was 21.4 yr. Mean T-score (BMD) were -0.42 and -1.52 in normal and bone disease groups, respectively. Anthropometric measurement showed that 59% of the subjects were normal weight and bone disease group had lower value than normal group in majority of anthropometric index. The average energy intake was 1539.7 kcal, which was 73% of Korean EER. The subjects had lower vitamin C, folic acid, Ca and K intake than Korean RI independent of BMD. Bone disease group (1:2.05) showed significantly lower Ca:P ratio than normal group (1:1.86). Normal group had more intake frequency of milk and milk product than bone disease group. In relation to anthropometric index with T-score, significant correlations have been found in weight, PM, BFM, MM, TBW, SLM, FFM WHR, BMI and SMM. In relation to dietary factors with T-score, significant correlations have been found relating to intake frequency of milk and milk product. Our results indicate that for nutrients, ratio and balance may be more influential than intake for bone health in young women.

The Study for Results of Complex Cystic Breast Masses by Biopsy on Ultrasound (초음파상 복합성 낭성 유방 종괴의 조직 검사 결과에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Hye-Kyoung;Dong, Kyung-Rae
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.129-134
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: We examined the roles of Ultrasonography conductors by analyzing the results of tissue biopsy of complex cystic masse under the guidance of breast US. Objects and methods: This study was performed to a group of 178 who showed breast US indicating complex cystic masses among 342 patients who were definitely diagnosed by tissue biopsies and operations in our hospital from June 30th, 2003 to June 30th, 2007. The evaluation of tissues around, calcification, the distribution state of blood flow were excluded from the analysis subjects and logic 200 made by GE corporation and gun for core biopsy(Kimal corp., K7/MBD23) were used in this study. Results: The biopsy results of 178 subjects showed FCC (fibrocystic change)(n=56 : 31.4%), Fibrosis (n=41 : 23.0%), Fibroadenoma (n=20 : 11.2%), Epithelial hyperplasia (n=17 : 9.6%), Carcinoma (n=15 : 8.4%), Fibroadipose (n=8 : 4.5%), Sclerosing adenosis (n=7 : 3.9%), Duct ectasia (n=5 : 2.8%), Papiloma (n=5 : 2.8%), and Fat necrosis (n=1 : 0.6%), Hemangioma (n=1 : 0.6%), Abscess (n=1 : 0.6%), Dystrophic calcification(n=1 : 0.6%). Conclusion: The US showed that the results of the tissue biopsy of complex cystic masses were mostly carcinoma(8.4%). Most of them were benign and only 9.6% of epithelial hyperplasia which has high progression rate into malignant tumors epidemically showed malignancy. Most of them were included in the spectrum of fibrous cystic nodule. Even though these results are confirmed, further studies are required. As a result, a nodule which is not certified by US should be right to take the tissue biopsy, but if it's difficult due to patients or another reasons, re-check tests in three months are required. And systemic ultrasonography evaluation should be well recognized to conduct more careful and specific tests.

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A Study of Technical Approach Methods to Transabdominal Ultrasonography of the Extrahepatic Bile Ducts and of Following Effects from the Scan Training (간외담관 초음파검사의 주사방법 개선과 교육 후 주사 습득효과에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, In-Ja;Kang, Dae-Hyun;Kim, Bo-Young
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.149-159
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    • 2008
  • The purposes of this study are to analyze abnormal dilatation of the extrahepatic bile ducts by using transabdominal ultrasound, to confirm the existence of bile ducts diseases and their interrelationship, and for it to give a new theoretical basis for the technical access to extrahepatic bile ducts, upon which to analyze the ripple effects of the scan training. After teaching technical access process based on the new theory about extrahepatic bile duct to the thirty students who are studying ultrasonography, we allocated three hours per one student (30 mins ${\times}$ 6 times) to focus on the training of scanning skill. Training has been performed by one-to-one method. For evaluation, all the students have to perform the scans on (1) confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts (extrahepatic bile ducts and cystic duct), (2) the suprapancreatic bile duct, (3) the intrapancreatic bile duct, (4) intrapapilla Duct, based on the clearly divided concept. The existing training and methods have had low confidency about transabdominal ultrasonography of the extrahepatic bile duct and had limitation with which they could image only the suprapancreatic bile duct. The evaluation after finishing the train based on the new theory, however, all the students (30students) can access to (1) confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts(extrahepatic bile ducts and cystic duct), (2) the suprapancreatic bile duct objectively. 24 students can access to (3) the intrapancreatic bile duct and only one student can even make an image for (4) the intrapapilla Duct Though the evaluation on extrahepatic bile duct has to be performed with multi-sided method considering intrahepatic cause, bile duct cause and pathophysiological cause, only if we can image the extrahepatic bile duct to ampular of Vater objectively and confidently, we can greatly reduce invasive procedure such as ERCP, which is for the purpose of simple differential diagnosis and painful to the patients. Therefore if we concentrate on the scanning train based on the new theory to raise the confidency about ultrasonography, the effect will be doubled.

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A Study of Factors Affecting Measurement of Kidney Size in Ultrasonography (초음파로 신장의 크기 측정 시 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Seok-Hwan;Kim, Yun-Min;Choi, Jun-Gu
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.161-169
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    • 2008
  • Since measuring the size of kidney with sonography becomes an important index for diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic prediction in kidney disease, the accurate measurement and evaluation on this are clinically very important. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to increase reproducibility and objectivity in measuring the size of kidney by enumerating factors that have an impact for measurement. It targeted 44 adults in Korea at the age of 21-27. It measured in order for both kidneys to be seen most largely while changing a subject-examiner's position in a state of fasting for 8 hours and a transducer's approaching direction. It compared a size of kidney by measuring, respectively, with the same method in 30 minutes and in 1 hour after drinking water in 700-1,000cc. In case of the lateral approach scan in decubitus position, the average length of the kidney both to the right and the left and the deviation of measurement to be the largest. In NPO(None Per Oral) state, the average length in the right kidney was 10.19cm, and the average length in the left kidney was 10.33cm. In 60 minutes after taking moisture, the average length in the right kidney was 10.94cm, and the average length in the left kidney was 11.13cm. In comparing the average length of the kidney in NPO state and its average length in 60 minutes after taking moisture, the size swelled by 7.3% for the length in the right kidney and by 7.7% in the left, thereby having been indicated to be statistically significant(P<0.003). The measurement in a size of kidney by using ultrasound may be measured differently depending on a patient's state of taking moisture and a transducer's approaching direction. It is thought that when the measurement in a size of kidney is especially important clinically, the intake and intake time in moisture need to be considered and that measuring with the posterior approach in prone position is a good method aiming to increase reproducibility in measuring length of the kidney.

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Development of Respiration Gating RT Technique using Moving Phantom and Ultrasound Sensor: a feasibility study (동 팬텀과 초음파 센서를 이용한 호흡운동 조절 방사선치료 기술 개발)

  • Lee Suk;Lee Sang Hoon;Shin Dongho;Yang Dae Sik;Choi Myung Sun;Kim Chul Yong
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.316-324
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    • 2004
  • Purpose : In radiotherapy of tumors in liver, enough planning target volume (PTV) margins are necessary to compensate breathing-related movement of tumor volumes. To overcome the problems, this study aims to obtain patients' body movements by using a moving phantom and an ultrasonic sensor, and to develop respiration sating techniques that can adjust patients' beds by using reversed values of the data obtained. Materials and Methods : The phantom made to measure patients' body movements is composed of a microprocessor (BS II, 20 MHz, 8K Byte), a sensor (Ultra-Sonic, range $3\~3$ m), host computer (RS232C) and stepping motor (torque 2.3 Kg) etc., and the program to control and operate it was developed. The program allows the phantom to move within the maximum range of 2 cm, its movements and corrections to take place In order, and x, y and z to move successively. After the moving phantom was adjusted by entering random movement data (three dimensional data form with distance of 2 cm), and the phantom movements were acquired using the ultra sonic sensor, the two data were compared and analyzed. And then, after the movements by respiration were acquired by using guinea pigs, the real-time respiration gating techniques were drawn by operating the phantom with the reversed values of the data. Results : The result of analyzing the acquisition-correction delay time the three types of data values and about each value separately shows that the data values coincided with one another within $1\%$ and that the acquisition-correction delay time was obtained real-time $(2.34{\times}10^{-4}sec)$. Conclusion : This study successfully confirms the clinic application possibility of respiration gating techniques by using a moving phantom and an ultrasonic sensor. With ongoing development of additional analysis system, which can be used in real-time set-up reproducibility analysis, it may be beneficially used in radiotherapy of moving tumors.