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Genetic Analysis of Ultrasound and Carcass Measurement Traits in a Regional Hanwoo Steer Population

  • Hwang, Jeong Mi;Cheong, Jae Kyoung;Kim, Sam Su;Jung, Bong Hwan;Koh, Myung Jae;Kim, Hyeong Cheol;Choy, Yun Ho
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.457-463
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    • 2014
  • Ultrasound measurements of backfat thickness (UBF), longissimus muscle area (ULMA) and marbling score (UMS) and carcass measurements of carcass weight (CW), backfat thickness (BF), longissimus muscle area (LMA), and marbling score (MS) on 7,044 Hanwoo steers were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters. Data from Hanwoo steers that were raised, finished in Hoengseong-gun, Gangwon-do (province) and shipped to slaughter houses during the period from October 2010 to April 2013 were evaluated. Ultrasound measurements were taken at approximately three months before slaughter by an experienced operator using a B-mode real-time ultrasound device (HS-2000, FHK Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) with a 3.5 MHz linear probe. Ultrasound scanning was on the left side between 13th rib and the first lumbar vertebrae. All slaughtering processes and carcass evaluations were performed in accordance with the guidelines of beef grading system of Korea. To estimate genetic parameters, multiple trait animal models were applied. Fixed effects included in the models were: the effects of farm, contemporary group effects (year-season at the time of ultrasound scanning in the models for UBF, ULMA, and UMS, and year-season at slaughter in the models for CW, BF, LMA, and MS), the effects of ultrasound technicians as class variables and the effects of the age in days at ultrasound scanning or at slaughtering as linear covariates, respectively for ultrasound and carcass measures. Heritability estimates obtained from our analyses were 0.37 for UBF, 0.13 for ULMA, 0.27 for UMS, 0.44 for CW, 0.33 for BF, 0.36 for LMA and 0.54 MS, respectively. Genetic correlations were strongly positive between corresponding traits of ultrasound and carcass measures. Genetic correlation coefficient between UBF and BF estimate was 0.938, between ULMA and LMA was 0.767 and between UMS and MS was 0.925. These results suggest that ultrasound measurement traits are genetically similar to carcass measurement traits.

Ultrasound Targeted Microbubble Destruction for Novel Dual Targeting of HSP72 and HSC70 in Prostate Cancer

  • Wang, Hang-Hui;Song, Yi-Xin;Bai, Min;Jin, Li-Fang;Gu, Ji-Ying;Su, Yi-Jin;Liu, Long;Jia, Chao;Du, Lian-Fang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.1285-1290
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    • 2014
  • The aim was to determine whether ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) promotes dual targeting of HSP72 and HSC70 for therapy of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), to improve the specific and efficient delivery of siRNA, to induce tumor cell specific apoptosis, and to find new therapeutic targets specific of CRPC.VCaP cells were transfected with siRNA oligonucleotides. HSP70, HSP90 and cleaved caspase-3 expression were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Apoptosis and transfection efficiency were assessed by flow cytometry. Cell viability assays were used to evaluate safety. We found HSP72, HSC70 and HSP90 expression to be absent or weak in normal prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1), but uniformly strong in prostate cancerous cells (VCaP). UTMD combined with dual targeting of HSP72 and HSC70 siRNA improve the efficiency of transfection, cell uptake of siRNA, downregulation of HSP70 and HSP90 expression in VCaP cells at the mRNA and protein level, and induction of extensive tumor-specific apoptosis. Cell counting kit-8 assays showed decreased cellular viability in the HSP72/HSC70-siRNA silenced group. These results suggest that the combination of UTMD with dual targeting HSP70 therapy for PCa may be most efficacious, providng a novel, reliable, non-invasive, safe targeted approach to improve the specific and efficient delivery of siRNA, and achieve maximal effects.

Survey on Utilization of Ultrasonographic Machine in Small Animal Clinics in South Korea (전국 소동물 병원의 초음파 진단기기 및 활용도 현황조사)

  • Chang, Jin-Hwa;Paik, Min-Ji;Chang, Dong-Woo
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.408-414
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    • 2011
  • This study was carried out to analyze the utilization of ultrasound machines in animal hospitals and focused on surveying the present condition of diagnostic ultrasound on veterinary medicine in South Korea. Total 279 veterinary hospitals were surveyed with e-mail questionnaires or telephone survey. E-mail questionnaires consist of 17 items of questions including existence of ultrasound machine, types of ultrasound machine, ultrasound examination costs, frequency, purposes, other diagnostic imaging equipments, and referring system of ultrasound. Telephone surveys asked about the existence of the ultrasound machine and types of the ultrasound machine to 279 animal hospitals. Two hundred and seventy-one out of 279 animal hospitals holds ultrasound machine. Seventy-two percents clinics purchased used ultrasonographic machines and mean years after the date of manufacture is 7.5 years and the proportion of superannuated machines are relatively high. Also many clinicians prefer single organ scanning rather than general scan technique and more than 60% of clinics perform ultrasonographic examination less than 5 times a week. Clinics located in Seoul area tend to have more expensive and brand-new ultrasonographic machines and the distribution of radiology specialist are higher in this area. Problems associated with the present condition were oversupply of machines, unequal distribution of the medical equipment in different localities, ineffective use of the medical equipment, and high percentage of old poor-quality medical equipments. There should be a viable alternative proposal to control amount and quality of the ultrasound machines. Also, the improved management system for the ultrasound machine is required.

The Effects of IFC and Ultrasound on the ROM and Pain in Patients with Chronic Back Pain (간섭전류와 초음파가 만성 배근 통증을 가진 환자의 통증과 관절가동범위에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jung-Seo;Lee, Jeong-Woo;Lee, Ji-Yeun
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Clinical Electrophysiology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 2011
  • Purpose : The purpose of study was to better understand the effects of Interferential Current (IFC) and Ultrasound on the ROM and pain in patients with chronic back muscle pain. Methods : Twenty patients with chronic back pain were randomly assigned to IFC stimulation groups and Ultrasound stimulation groups. Both groups used the same method for 20 minutes each session, three times a week for 4 weeks at the same time point and with the same amount of treatment. Measurement items are visual analogue scale (VAS) and range of motion (ROM). Results : This study showed that the IFC stimulation group and the ultrasound stimulation group demonstrated significant improvement in ROM increase and pain reduction. Both groups showed a significant reduction in VAS; however, the ultrasound stimulation group decreased more than ultrasound stimulation group. And, both groups showed a significant increase in ROM. The ultrasound stimulation group increased significantly more than the IFC stimulation group in ROM of flexion and extension. The IFC stimulation group increased significantly more than the ultrasound stimulation group in ROM of lateral flexion. Conclusion : Pain relief was more effective in the ultrasound group. The ultrasound showed a more significant effect than IFC in ROM of flexion and extension. The IFC showed a more significant effect than ultrasound in ROM lateral flexion. The results of this study suggest that the treatment effects are different on patients with chronic back pain, according to treatment methods.

Effect of ultrasound treatment on the quality properties of chicken breast meat and the broth from Korean chicken soup (Baeksuk)

  • Jung, Samooel;Jo, Kyung;Lee, Sunmin;Choi, Yun-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.539-548
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    • 2019
  • This study investigated the influence of ultrasound treatment on the quality properties of chicken breast meat and the broth from Korean chicken soup (Baeksuk). In this study, the internal temperature, malondialdehyde content, textural profile, color, dry matter, protein content, phenolic content and sensory properties of chicken breast meat broth from chicken soup with ultrasound treatment were analyzed. The chicken, plants, salt, and water were vacuum packaged in a retort pouch. The chicken soup was manufactured with ultrasound treatment (45 kHz and $1.6W\;cm^{-2}$) in a water bath at $85^{\circ}C$. The texture properties, color, and lipid oxidation of the chicken breast meat from the chicken soup were not affected by the ultrasound treatment. There was no significant difference in the lipid oxidation in the broth of the chicken soup between the control and ultrasound treatment. The dry matter and crude protein contents of the broth were significantly increased by the ultrasound treatment. The broth flavor of the chicken soup manufactured with the ultrasound treatment received a higher score than that of the control in the sensory analysis. There were no differences in the sensory properties of the chicken breast meat from the chicken soup between the control and ultrasound treatment Therefore, the broth quality of the chicken soup can be improved by heating with ultrasound treatment. Additionally, to apply ultrasound technology to the production chicken breast meat and the broth from chicken soup, it is necessary to further study the quality characteristics of the breast meat and broth according to various frequencies and strengths.

Alteration of Forearm Local Temperature and Median Nerve Conduction Velocity by Therapeutic Ultrasound in Healthy Adult Subjects (초음파에 의한 전완 국소 온도와 정중 운동 신경전도 속도의 변화)

  • Jeon, Cha-Sun;Kim, Taek-Yean
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Orthopedic Manual Physical Therapy
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 2006
  • PURPOSE: Previous studies have documented the lack of ultrasound's non-thermal effects on nerve conduction using frequencies of 1 MHz and 870 kHz. The purpose of this study was to determine the biophysical effects of continuous ultrasound on median local forearm temperature and motor nerve conduction velocities using frequencies of 3.0 MHz. SUBJECTS: Twelve healthy subjects (6 males, 6 females, age $22.30{\pm}2.41$ yrs, weight $61.33{\pm}10.16$ kg, height $167.58{\pm}8.04$ cm) without a history of neurological or musculoskeletal injury to their dominant arm volunteered for this study. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Each subject received a total of five treatments, one each at .0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 W/$cm^2$ of 3 MHz continuous ultrasound on the anterior surface of the middle area of dominant forearm for 10 minutes. Dependent measures for forearm local temperature and median motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) were taken pretreatment and immediately post-treatment. One-way ANOVA were used for each dependent measure. RESULTS: The posttreatment forearm local temperature were differed significantly (p<0.001) between intensities of ultrasound. The posttreatment forearm local temperature of the ultrasound treated with 1.0 w/$cm^2$, 1.5 w/$cm^2$ and 2.0 w/$cm^2$ were significantly higher than 0.5 w/$cm^2$ and 0.0 w/$cm^2$ of ultrasound (p<0.05). The posttreatment median MNCV were differed significantly from the respective pretreatment velocities (p<0.001). The MNCV of the ultrasound treated with 0.0 w/$cm^2$ and 0.5 w/$cm^2$ were significantly (p<0.05) slower than that observed pretreatment, while the three ultrasound intensities produced significantly increased posttreatment MNCV: 1.0 w/$cm^2$ and 1.5 w/$cm^2$ and 2.0 W/$cm^2$. The posttreatment MNCV at 2.0 w/$cm^2$ and 1.5 w/$cm^2$ was significantly faster than that at 0 w/$cm^2$, 0.5 w/$cm^2$ and 1.0 w/$cm^2$ (p<0.05), the MNCV at 1.0 w/$cm^2$ was significantly faster than that associated with 0 w/$cm^2$ and 0.5 w/$cm^2$ of ultrasound (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The decreased median motor forearm local temperature and MNCV of the ultrasound treated with 0.0 w/$cm^2$ and 0.5 w/$cm^2$ were attributed to the cooling effect by ultrasound transmission gel. Local forearm temperature and nerve conduction velocity were directly related to the intensity of ultrasound. Alterations in MNCV from ultrasound on healthy nerves appeared to be related to temperature changes induced by thermal effects of ultrasound.

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Extracting gall bladders from ultrasound images

  • Kim, Hyoung-Seop;Ishikawa, Seiji;Kato, Kiyoshi;Tsukuda, Masaaki;Matsuoka, Jun-nosuke
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.248-251
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    • 1995
  • Nowadays, the internal images of a human body can be easily provided by the ultrasound imaging, the X-ray CT, or the MRI device, among which the ultrasound imaging device has good resolution for soft tissues of a human body compared with the other devices. Furthermore, the use of ultrasound imaging devices will increase in future especially in the obstetrics, territory, since it does not give harm to the human body. Although several techniques have been investigated until now in order to extract organs from ultrasound images, very few of them have achieved satisfactory results because of low contrast and high noise nature of images. This paper proposes a technique for automatic extraction of the gall bladder area from ultrasound images. The proposed technique first extracts a small reliable area of a gall bladder from an ultrasound image employing smoothing, binarization, expanding and shrinking, and labeling, and then expands the area referring to the binarized version of the original image. The technique is examined its performance by real ultrasound images of a gall bladder and satisfactory results are obtained. Some problems to be solved are discussed finally.

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Combined Effects of Radiation and Ultrasound on Embryonic Development in Mice (ICR 마우스의 태아(胎兒)에 대(對)한 방사선(放射線)과 초음파(超音波)의 공동효과(共同效果)에 관한 실험적(實驗的) 검토(檢討))

  • Gu, Yeun-Hwa
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 1991
  • The combined effect of radiation and ultrasound has been studied in mouse embryos. Radiation and/or ultrasound were adminstered to ICR mice on day 8 of gestation. Intrauterine death, gross malformation, and fetal body weight were selected as indicators of effects. Does of whole-body ${\gamma}-irradiation$ were 0.5 to 2.5 Gy and those of ultrasound were $0.5\;W/cm^2$ to $3\;W/cm^2$. Intrautrine mortality increased with increasing radiation dose ; this trend was more remarkable in combination with ultrasound. Gross malformations such as exencephaly and anophthalmia/microphthalmia appeared frequently in the fetuses treated with both radiation and ultrasound. Decreased fetal weight was observed even in mice treated with 1.5 Gy of radiation or $1\;W/cm^2$ of ultrasound. There was a linear relationship between dose and reduction of fetal weight. The fetal weight was sensitive, precise and easy-to-handle indicator for the effects of growth retardation. Intrauterine mortality and frequencies of exencephaly and anophthalmia/microphthalmia were higher than the sum of those induced by radiation and by ultrasound. The results indicatied that the combined action of radiation and ultrasound on intrauterine death and malformations was synergistic.

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Advanced Indoor Zone Detection with Bluetooth and Ultrasound of Smartphone (스마트폰의 블루투스와 초음파를 이용한 향상된 실내 영역 결정)

  • Kwon, Jin-Se;Lee, Je-Min;Kim, Hyung-Shin
    • IEMEK Journal of Embedded Systems and Applications
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.135-141
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    • 2016
  • Indoor zone-based services have continuously become popular by increased prevalence of smartphones. Bluetooth and ultrasound can be used for zone detection. However, bluetooth does not guarantee precise zone detection if the signal degrades due to the obstacles. Ultrasound can be easily forged by recording sound on the smartphone. For that reason, zone detection based on ultrasound has a security hole. To remedy each limitation, we propose an advanced zone detection method, that combines bluetooth and ultrasound. An authentication server issues a one-time password to the user over bluetooth. The user generates an ultrasound signal that encodes the password. In this manner, the proposed method ensures secure and accurate zone detection.

Post Sliced Cleaning of Silicon Wafers using Ozone and Ultrasound (오존과 초음파를 이용한 실리콘 웨이퍼의 Post Sliced Cleaning)

  • Choi, Eun-Suck;Bae, So-Ik
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.75-79
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    • 2006
  • The effect of ozone and/or ultrasound treatments on the efficiency of slurry removal in post sliced cleaning (PSC) of silicon ingot was studied. Efficiency of slurry removal was evaluated as functions of time, temperature and surfactant with DOE (Design of Experiment) method. Residual slurries were observed on the wafer surface in case of cleaning by ozone or ultrasound separately. However, a clean wafer surface was appeared when cleaned with ozone and ultrasound simultaneously. It has found that cleaning time was the main effect among temperature, time and surfactant. Elevated temperature, addition of surfactant and high ozone concentration helped to accelerate efficient removal of slurry. The improvement of removal efficiency seems to be related to the formation of more active OH radicals. The highly cleaned surface was achieved at 10 wt% ozone, 1 min and 10 vol% surfactant with ultrasound. Application of ozone and ultrasound might be a useful method for PSC process in wafer cleaning.