• Title, Summary, Keyword: urban

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The Current Status of the Korean Urban Farming Researched from an Institutional Perspective and Tasks for the Future (제도적 측면에서 살펴본 도시농업의 현황과 과제)

  • Park, Jin-Wook;Ahn, Gye-Bog
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.61-73
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    • 2013
  • This study presents the methods to improve the urban farming in Korea by analysing the current circumstances of urban farming in Korea. Specifically, the legal system in association with urban farming, current status of the act on the urban farming, the present situation of the Korean urban farming, and the comprehensive plans for urban farming have been analysed in order to grasp the present situations and seek for solutions. Based on these, the research provides effective supporting methods for sustainable urban farming in Korea. As a result, the essentials to improved urban farming can be summarized with two factors; securing more space for urban farming and improving the supporting system for the urban farmers. Enthusiastic attitudes of local governments, security of budget, and cooperation with the citizens are vital to expand the urban farming in addition to the institutional and systematic urban farming improving methods mentioned above.

Analysis of the Effects of Advection and Urban Fraction on Urban Heat Island Intensity using Unified Model for Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea (통합모델을 활용한 이류와 도시비율이 서울 수도권 지역의 도시열섬강도에 미치는 영향 분석)

  • Hong, Seon-Ok;Kim, Do-Hyoung;Byon, Jae-Young;Park, HyangSuk;Ha, Jong-Chul
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.381-390
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    • 2019
  • This study investigates the impacts of urban land-use fraction and temperature advection on the urban heat island intensity over the Seoul metropolitan area using the UM (Unified Model) with the MORUSES (Met Office Reading Urban Surface Exchange Scheme) during the heat wave over the region from 2 to 8, August 2016. Two simulations are performed with two different land-use type, the urban (urban simulation) and the urban surfaces replaced with grass (rural simulation), in order to calculate the urban heat island intensity defined as the 1.5-m temperature difference between the urban and the rural simulations. The land-use type for the urban simulation is obtained from Korea Ministry of Environment (2007) land-use data after it is converted into the types used in the UM. It is found that the urban heat island intensity over high urban-fraction regions in the metropolitan area is as large as 1℃ in daytime and 3.2℃ in nighttime, i.e., the effects of urban heat island is much larger for night than day. It is also found that the magnitude of urban heat island intensity increases linearly with urban land-use fraction. Spatially, the estimated the urban heat island intensities are systematically larger in the downwind regions of the metropolitan area than in the upwind area due to the effects of temperature advection. Results of this study indicate that urban surface fraction in the city area and temperature advection play a key role in determining the spatial distribution and magnitude of urban heat island intensity.

Analysis of Traditional Urban Morphology of Korean Contemporary City and Institutional Measures for Preservation

  • Choi, Min-Ah
    • KIEAE Journal
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.47-59
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    • 2014
  • In the present circumstance of exploring measures for sustainable development, finding and using planning elements of historical city is getting important as a urban planning tool. Thus this study aims to examine the characters of Korean traditional urban form through three periods, Josun, modern and contemporary eras. Three urban centers representing different characteristics were selected; historical center based on 14th century's traditional planning, modern period urban center, which is related with development of railway, and contemporary urban center of late 20th century. Analyse of urban tissue, composed with form and scale of street network, blocks and plots, shows that each urban center of Seoul has certain common attributes in terms of morphology in spite of the difference of formation and development period. However this historical urban forms are rarely applicated in the current urban planning, such as new-town planning or district unit plan. This shows the necessity of modification of urban regulation for preserving the identity of our city and pursuing sustainable development.

The Spatiotemporal Impact of Urban Growth based on Landuse Pattern (도시성장에 따른 토지이용패턴의 시공간적 영향 평가)

  • Lee, Dong-Kun;Choe, Hye-Yeong;Oh, Kyushik
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.161-170
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    • 2009
  • As urban growth continues, the earth ecosystem is increasingly dependent on the patterns of urban growth. The impact intensity from urban growth is expected to change predictably with distance from the urban center. However we can't fully understand yet how urban development pattern affects urban ecosystem. In researches about urban ecosystem, it is important to relate the spatial pattern of urbanization to ecological processes. So we used gradient analysis with time data; 1980's, 1990's and 2000's. We attempted to quantify the urban spatiotemporal impacts in Daejeon-city and Cheonan-city, Korea, along a 75km long and 3km wide transect. Through the results, we found the impacts range of urbanization with urban development process of two cities. When the urban growth was concentrated on in both cities, the impacts intensity and range were much stronger and wider. As a result, in urban planning or green space planning, we have to consider suitable urban development forms with surrounding areas, and make legal clauses which limits landuse change. This quantifying the urban gradient is an important step in understanding urban ecology.

Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data Utilization for Urban Heat Island and Urban Planning Studies

  • Lee, Hye Kyung
    • Journal of KIBIM
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.36-43
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    • 2017
  • Population growth and rapid urbanization has been converting large amounts of rural vegetation into urbanized areas. This human induced change has increased temperature in urban areas in comparison to adjacent rural regions. Various studies regarding to urban heat island have been conducted in different disciplines in order to analyze the environmental issue. Especially, different types of thermal infrared remote sensing data are applied to urban heat island research. This article reviews research focusing on thermal infrared remote sensing for urban heat island and urban planning studies. Seven studies of analyses for the relationships between urban heat island and other dependent indicators in urban planning discipline are reviewed. Despite of different types of thermal infrared remote sensing data, units of analysis, land use and land cover, and other dependent variable, each study results in meaningful outputs which can be implemented in urban planning strategies. As the application of thermal infrared remote sensing data is critical to measure urban heat island, it is important to understand its advantages and disadvantages for better analyses of urban heat island based on this review. Despite of its limitations - spatial resolution, overpass time, and revisiting cycle, it is meaningful to conduct future research on urban heat island with thermal infrared remote sensing data as well as its application to urban planning disciplines. Based on the results from this review, future research with remotely sensed data of urban heat island and urban planning could be modified and better results and mitigation strategies could be developed.

The Consideration of Progressive Urban Park and The Possibility of Urban Agricultural Park (도시공원 진화상의 비판적 고찰을 통한 도시농업공원의 발전 가능성)

  • Yun, Hee-Jeong;Cho, Mi-Kyoung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.81-90
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    • 2012
  • Urban parks are progressing but are in chaos in the twenty-first century. Therefore the purposes of this study are to consider critically and classify the new paradigm of urban parks. Urban parks are one of the space products, and progressing aspects can be divided into three parts; supply, demand and market aspects. In the abstract, urban parks' progress represents process, openness or voidness, general and cultural ecology, productivity, experience program, identity or sense of place, carriers of urban regeneration, urban infrastructure, community space, multi-layered activity, active space, communication with urban space, tool of low carbon strategy and consilience. But urban parks have come under increased criticism about the long period development on trees growth, covering open space, limitation of general and cultural ecology, production, activity programs, identity and community space, visible urban regeneration, economic validity, urban sprawl, not using as the low carbon strategy, and finally negative consilience with contiguous fields. We collected these critical consideration about progressing urban parks, and proposed urban agricultural park as one of the alternative urban parks. This is closely connected with sustainable region development, low-carbon society, local food, well-being, Lohas paradigm and amenity of urban life.

Understanding the LST (Land Surface Temperature) Effects of Urban-forests in Seoul, Korea

  • Kil, Sung-Ho;Yun, Young-Jo
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.246-248
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    • 2018
  • Urban development and population have augmented the increase of impervious land-cover. This phenomenon has amplified the effects of climate change and increasing urban island effects due to increases in urban temperatures. Seoul, South Korea is one of the largest metropolitan cities in the world. While land uses in Seoul vary, land cover patterns have not changed much (under 2%) in the past 10 years, making the city a prime target for studying the effects of land cover types on the urban temperature. This research seeks to generalize the urban temperature of Seoul through a series of statistical tests using multi-temporal remote sensing data focusing on multiple scales and typologies of green space to determine its overall effectiveness in reducing the urban heat. The distribution of LST values was reduced as the size of urban forests increased. It means that changing temperature of large-scale green-spaces is less influenced because the broad distribution could be resulted in various external variables such as slope aspect, topographic height and density of planting areas, while small-scale urban forests are more affected from that. The large-scale green spaces contributed significantly to lowering urban temperature by showing a similar mean LST value. Both of concentration and dispersal of urban forests affected the reduction of urban temperature. Therefore, the findings of this research support that creating urban forests in an urban region could reduce urban temperature regardless of the scale.

The Analysis of Korean Urban Symbols -Urban Songs, Urban Birds, Urban Trees, and Urban Flowers- (한국 도시 상징의 분석 -시가, 시조, 시목, 시화를 중심으로-)

  • Hwang, Hong-Seop
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.227-253
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    • 1997
  • Twenty-first century will be in the era of culture and art as postmodernims progresses, therefore, geography which is is traditionally concerned with regional study needs to deeply study the culture of region. Regional symbols are clue to identify regional culture which is environments of symbolic space. Especially the study of urban culture come to the needs of times with occurring global city, urban symbols make clear urban culture and urban identity. The aim of this paper is to analyze urban symbols, that is urban songs, urban birds, urban trees, urban flowers to study urban culture in korean cities, urban symbols make clear urban spatial environment which is natural and human, and then, urban symbols make clear urban identity. The analytical results of lyrics of urban songs in the 76 cities of korea include names of mountain, river, sea and place, the names of mountain and river make clear urban identies which is natural and human characteristics, it is environment of symbolic space which brings unity, one body. Especially it is environment of symbolic space which comprise fung-soo(風水) aspects, place names well represent symbolic space. The analytical results of symbolic things, that is urban birds, urban trees, urban flowers in the 78 cities of korea indicate they are gain and gain established, they are also our environments of symbolic space which is curtual settlings of our life, but they are imported not native species but foreign species which have not environment of symbolic space. The results of this paper implicate urban symols should review. because urban symbols fit to our natural and human environments of symbolic space.

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Changes in Urban Planning Policies and Urban Morphologies in Seoul, 1960s to 2000s

  • Kim, Sung Hong
    • Architectural research
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.133-141
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this paper is to highlight the main policies of the last half century that have shaped the urban architectural fabric of Seoul today, and explore whether a modified approach might better address the current socioeconomic conditions in Korea. The paper defines and examines urban planning in Korea through an overview of the four main urban project policies implemented in Seoul from the 1960s to the present: Land Readjustment (LR), Housing Site Development (HSD), Urban Redevelopment (UR), and Housing Reconstruction (HR). While the fundamental ideology behind these policies served well during a prolonged period of high economic growth, evidence is growing that these policies are losing steam under today's conditions. A growing legacy of stalled and incomplete urban projects from the mid-2000s-the New Town Project is an example-begs the fundamental question as to whether an alternative urban planning paradigm is needed for Korea in an age of low economic growth, low birth rates and a fossil fuel energy crisis. Through the urban morphologies of the three residential areas in Seoul developed by LR projects, this paper looks at the possibility of urban regeneration through the sustainment of urban architecture in those residential areas that have not been affected by HSD, UR, and HR.

High-Rise Urban Form and Environmental Performance - An Overview on Integrated Approaches to Urban Design for a Sustainable High-Rise Urban Future

  • Yang, Feng
    • International Journal of High-Rise Buildings
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2016
  • High-rise as a building typology is gaining popularity in Asian mega-cities, due to its advantages in increasing volumetric density with limited land resources. Numerous factors contribute to the formation of high-rise urban form, from economical and institutional, environmental to socio-political. Environmental concerns over the impact of rapid urbanization in developing economies demand new thought on the link between urban environment and urban form. Outdoor and indoor climate, pedestrian comfort, and building energy consumption are all related to and impacted by urban form and building morphology. There are many studies and practices on designing individual "green" high-rise buildings, but far fewer studies on designing high-rise building clusters from the perspective of environmental performance optimization.. This paper focuses on the environmental perspective, and its correlation with the evolution of the high-rise urban form. Previous studies on urban morphology in terms of environmental and energy performance are reviewed. Studies on "parameterizing" urban morphology to estimate its environmental performance are reviewed, and the possible urban design implications of the study are demonstrated in by the author, by way of a microclimate map of the iconic Shanghai Xiao Lujiazui CBD. The study formulates the best-practice design guidelines for creating walkable and comfortable outdoor space in a high-rise urban setting, including proper sizing of street blocks and building footprint, provision of shading, and facilitating urban ventilation.