• Title, Summary, Keyword: variable selection

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Selection and Horticultural Characteristics Evalution of High ${\alpha}-Glucosidase$ Inhibitor in Pepper (고추의 ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ 저해제 고 활성 계통 선발 및 특성 평가)

  • Cho, Myeong-Cheoul;Park, Dong-Bok;Yang, Eun-Young;Pae, Do-Ham;Won, Se-Ra;Yu, Wang-Kyun;Rhee, Hae-Ik
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.233-239
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to investigate the distribution of ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ inhibitor (AGI) activity and to evaluate horticultural characteristics of pepper (Capsicum spp.). AGI activities of pepper fruits and leaves were different from 1.0 to 20.5 times and 1.0 to 5.9 times, respectively. Weight, length and width of evaluated pepper fruit were distributed from 0.5 to 56.0 g, 0.8 to 15.4 cm and 0.5 to 6.3 cm per fruit respectively. Stem colors before transplanting varied from green to violet. Length and width of leaf were distributed from 3.1 to 5.0 cm and 2.1 to 3.0 cm. Immature fruit color was almost green and mature fruit color was almost red. In horticultural characteristics of selected pepper lines with high AGI activity, the fruit position was downward position. The immature fruit color was green in all lines except one and the mature fruit color was red in all lines. Fruit weight and fruit length of selected pepper lines with high AGI activity were distributed from 5.9 to 41.1 g and 5.9 to 17.0 cm and leaf width and leaf length were distributed from 5.8 to 29.7 cm and 3.9 to 8.7 cm, respectively. The AGI activities of pepper is widely variable between leaf and fruit. According to this result, it suggested the possibility of developing a new pepper line with high AGI activity.

Extraction of Essential Design Elements for Urban Parks - Based on the Analysis of 2017 Satisfaction Survey of Park Use in Seoul - (도시공원의 필수 설계요소 추출 - 2017년 서울시 공원이용 만족도 조사의 결과 분석을 바탕으로 -)

  • Lee, Jae Ho;Kim, Soonki
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 2018
  • The aim of this study is to provide foundational knowledge of how to enhance the user satisfaction of urban parks. The study seeks to identify essential factors that influence user satisfaction and to provide better design strategies for future park design as well as the reorganization of existing ones. To measure user satisfaction, this study used factor analysis to extract essential factors - facility conditions, landscape and scenery, safety, and kindness - by using data from a survey conducted by the city of Seoul in 2017. We then used a regression analysis to infer causal relationships between the independent variables and the dependent variables (user satisfaction). The results revealed that the most significantly and positively related variable to user satisfaction in urban parks was safety (${\beta}=0.276$, p<.000), followed by landscape and scenery (${\beta}=0.230$, p<.000), facility conditions (${\beta}=0.215$, p<.000), and kindness (${\beta}=0.208$, p<.000). The results indicate that, for future urban park designs, planners and designers should prioritize the issues of safety by adopting crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). In addition, planners and designers of future park designs should heavily weigh the selection and provision of relevant facilities for the intended use as well as well-arranged and well-managed plants and trees. Based on the results of IPA analysis, the most urgent improvement elements appeared to be the factor of kindness; however, the impact of kindness influencing user satisfaction was less important than that of safety and landscape and scenery in the urban park design processes. This study demonstrates that to maximize the user satisfaction of the urban park design processes and to provide more valuable spaces for users, it is necessary to secure park safety and to create well-composed landscape and scenery. Future research should provide more detailed and specified urban park design strategies corresponding with the importance of the factors identified in this study.

The Effect of the Gap between College Students' Perception of the Importance of Coffee Shops and Their Satisfaction after Patronizing Coffee Shops on Their Purchasing Behavior (대전원교학생대가배점중요성적감지화타문광고가배점지후적만의도지간적차거대타문구매행위적영향(大专院校学生对咖啡店重要性的感知和他们光顾咖啡店之后的满意度之间的差距对他们购买行为的影响))

  • Lee, Won-Ok
    • Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to categorize the gap between coffee shop 'importance' (as perceived by customers before patronizing the coffee shop) and 'satisfaction' (perception of customers after patronizing the coffee shop) as positive or negative and to analyze the effect of these gaps on purchasing behavior. To do this, I used the gap between importance and satisfaction regarding the choice of a coffee shop as the explanatory variable and performed an empirical analysis of the direction and size of the effect of the gap on purchasing behavior (overall satisfaction, willingness-to-revisit) by applying the Ordered Probit Model (OPM). A previous study that used IPA to evaluate the effects of gaps estimated the direction and size of a quadrant but failed to analyze the effect of gaps on customers. In this study, I evaluated the effects of positive and negative gaps on customer satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit. Using OPM, I quantified the effect of positive and negative gaps on overall customer satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit. Per-head expenditure, frequency of visits, and coffee-purchasing place had the most positive effects on overall customer satisfaction. Frequency of visits, followed by per-head expenditure and then coffee-purchasing place, had the most positive impact on willingness-to-visit. Thus per-head expenditure and frequency of visits had the greatest positive effects on overall satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit. This finding implies that the higher the actual satisfaction (gap) of customers who spend KRW5,000 or more once or more per week at coffee shops is, the higher their overall satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit are. Despite the fact that economical efficiency had a significant effect on overall satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit, college and university students still use coffee shops and are willing to spend KRW5,000 because they do not only purchase coffee as a product itself, but use the coffee shop for other activities, such as working, meeting friends, or relaxing. College and university students also access the Internet in coffee shops via personal laptops, watch movies, and study; thus, coffee shops should provide their customers with the appropriate facilities and services. The fact that a positive gap for coffee shop brand had a positive effect on willingness-to-revisit implies that the higher the level of customer satisfaction, the greater the willingness-to-revisit. A negative gap for this factor, on the other hand, implies that the lower the level of customer satisfaction, the lower the willingness-to-revisit. Thus, the brand factor has a comparatively greater effect on satisfaction than the other factors evaluated in this study. Given that the domestic coffee culture is becoming more upscale and college/university students are sensitive to this trend, students are attentive to brands. In most upscale coffee shops in Korea, the outer wall is built out of glass that can be opened, the interiors are exotic with an open kitchen. These upscale coffee shops function as landmarks and match the taste of college/university students. Coffee shops in Korea have become a cultural brand. To make customers feel that coffee shops are upscale, good quality establishments and measures to provide better services in terms of brand factor should be instituted. The intensified competition among coffee shop brands in Korea as a result of the booming industry indicates that provision of additional services is needed to differentiate competitors. These customers can also use a scanner free of charge. Another strategy that can be used to boost brands could be to provide and operate a seminar room for seminars and group study. If coffee shops adopt these types of strategies, college/university students would be more likely to consider the expenses they incur worthwhile and, subsequently, they would be more likely to be satisfied with the brands of these coffee shops, with an associated increase in their willingness-to-revisit. Gender and study year had the most negative effects on overall satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit. Female students were more likely to be satisfied and be willing to return than male students, and third and fourth-year students were more likely to be satisfied and willing-to-return than first or second-year students. Students who drink coffee, read books, and use laptops alone at coffee shops are easily noticeable. High-grade students tend to visit coffee shops alone in order to use their time efficiently for self-development and to find jobs. The economical efficiency factor had the greatest effect on overall satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit in terms of a positive gap. The higher the actual satisfaction (gap) of students with the price of the coffee, the greater their overall satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit. Economical efficiency with a negative gap had a negative effect on willingness-to-revisit, which implies that a less negative gap will result in a greater willingness-to-revisit. Amid worsening market conditions, coffee shops located around colleges/universities are using strategies, such as a point or membership card, strategic alliances with credit-card companies, development of a set menu or seasonal menu, and free coffee-shot services to increase their competitive edge. Product power also had a negative effect in terms of a negative gap, which indicates that a higher negative gap will result in a lower willingness-to-revisit. Because there are many more customers that enjoy coffee in this decade, as compared to previous decades, the new generation of customers, namely college/university students, want various menu items in addition to coffee, and coffee shops should, therefore, add side menu items, such as waffles, rice cakes, cakes, sandwiches, and salads. For example, Starbucks Korea is making efforts to enhance product power by selling rice cakes flavored in strawberry, wormwood, and pumpkin, and providing coffee or cream free of charge. In summary, coffee shops should focus on increasing their economical efficiency, brand, and product power to enhance the satisfaction of college/university students. Because shops adjacent to colleges or universities enjoy a locational advantage, providing differentiated services in terms of economical efficiency, brand, and product power, is likely to increase customer satisfaction and return visits. Coffee shop brands should, therefore, be innovative and embrace change to meet their customers' desires. Because this study only targeted college/university students in Seoul, comparative studies targeting diverse regions and age groups are required to generalize the findings and recommendations of this study.

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Comparison of Early Germinating Vigor, Germination Speed and Germination Rate of Varieties in Poa pratensis L., Lolium perenne L. and Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Grown Under Different Growing Conditions (생육환경에 따른 Poa pratensis L., Lolium perenne L. 및 Festuca arundinacea Schreb.의 초종 및 품종별 발아세, 발아속도 및 발아율 비교)

  • 김경남;남상용
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2003
  • Research was Initiated to investigate germination characteristics of cool-season grasses (CSG). Several turfgrasses were tested in different experiments. Experiments I and III were conducted under a room temperature condition of 16$^{\circ}C$ to 23 $^{\circ}C$ and under a constant light condition at 25 $^{\circ}C$, respectively. An alternative environment condition that is a requirement for a CSG germination test by International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) was applied in the Experiment II, consisting of 8-hr light at 25 $^{\circ}C$ and 16-hr dark at 15 $^{\circ}C$. In each experiment, data such as early germinating vigor, germination speed and germination rate were evaluated. Six turfgrass entries were comprised of two varieties each from Kentucky bluegrass (KB, Poa pratensis L.), perennial ryegrass (PR, Lolium perenne L.), and tall fescue (TF, Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), respectively. Significant differences were observed in early germinating vigor, germination speed and germination rate. Early germinating vigor as measured by days to 70% seed germination was variable according to environment conditions, turfgrasses and varieties. It was less than 6 days in PR and 6 to 9 days in TF. However, KB resulted in 11 to 13 days under an alternative condition and 11 to 28 days under a room temperature condition. The germination speed was fastest in PR of 7 to 10 days and slowest in KB of 14 to 21 days. However, intermediate speed of 10 to 14 days was associated with TF. There were considerable variations in germination rate among turfgrasses according to different conditions. Generally, PR and TF germinated well, regardless of environment conditions. However, a great difference was observed among KB varieties, when compared with others. Under a room temperature condition, total germination rate was 71.0% in Midnight and 77.7% in Award. And it increased under an alternative condition, which was 81.7% and 91.7% in Award and Midnight, respectively. However, the poorest rate was found under a constant temperature condition, resulting in 18.0% in Award and 15.3% in Midnight. These results suggest that an intensive germination test required by ISTA be needed prior to the decision of seeding rate, including early germinating vigor and germination speed as well as total germination rate. KB is very sensitive to environment conditions and thus its variety selection should be based on a careful expertise.

Studies on the Mechanical Properties of Weathered Granitic Soil -On the Elements of Shear Strength and Hardness- (화강암질풍화토(花崗岩質風化土)의 역학적(力學的) 성질(性質)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) -전단강도(剪斷强度)의 영향요소(影響要素)와 견밀도(堅密度)에 대(對)하여-)

  • Cho, Hi Doo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.66 no.1
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    • pp.16-36
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    • 1984
  • It is very important in forestry to study the shear strength of weathered granitic soil, because the soil covers 66% of our country, and because the majority of land slides have been occured in the soil. In general, the causes of land slide can be classified both the external and internal factors. The external factors are known as vegetations, geography and climate, but internal factors are known as engineering properties originated from parent rocks and weathering. Soil engineering properties are controlled by the skeleton structure, texture, consistency, cohesion, permeability, water content, mineral components, porosity and density etc. of soils. And the effects of these internal factors on sliding down summarize as resistance, shear strength, against silding of soil mass. Shear strength basically depends upon effective stress, kinds of soils, density (void ratio), water content, the structure and arrangement of soil particles, among the properties. But these elements of shear strength work not all alone, but together. The purpose of this thesis is to clarify the characteristics of shear strength and the related elements, such as water content ($w_o$), void ratio($e_o$), dry density (${\gamma}_d$) and specific gravity ($G_s$), and the interrelationship among related elements in order to decide the dominant element chiefly influencing on shear strength in natural/undisturbed state of weathered granitic soil, in addition to the characteristics of soil hardness of weathered granitic soil and root distribution of Pinus rigida Mill and Pinus rigida ${\times}$ taeda planted in erosion-controlled lands. For the characteristics of shear strength of weathered granitic soil and the related elements of shear strength, three sites were selected from Kwangju district. The outlines of sampling sites in the district were: average specific gravity, 2.63 ~ 2.79; average natural water content, 24.3 ~ 28.3%; average dry density, $1.31{\sim}1.43g/cm^3$, average void ratio, 0.93 ~ 1.001 ; cohesion, $ 0.2{\sim}0.75kg/cm^2$ ; angle of internal friction, $29^{\circ}{\sim}45^{\circ}$ ; soil texture, SL. The shear strength of the soil in different sites was measured by a direct shear apparatus (type B; shear box size, $62.5{\times}20mm$; ${\sigma}$, $1.434kg/cm^2$; speed, 1/100mm/min.). For the related element analyses, water content was moderated through a series of drainage experiments with 4 levels of drainage period, specific gravity was measured by KS F 308, analysis of particle size distribution, by KS F 2302 and soil samples were dried at $110{\pm}5^{\circ}C$ for more than 12 hours in dry oven. Soil hardness represents physical properties, such as particle size distribution, porosity, bulk density and water content of soil, and test of the hardness by soil hardness tester is the simplest approach and totally indicative method to grasp the mechanical properties of soil. It is important to understand the mechanical properties of soil as well as the chemical in order to realize the fundamental phenomena in the growth and the distribution of tree roots. The writer intended to study the correlation between the soil hardness and the distribution of tree roots of Pinus rigida Mill. planted in 1966 and Pinus rigida ${\times}$ taeda in 199 to 1960 in the denuded forest lands with and after several erosion control works. The soil texture of the sites investigated was SL originated from weathered granitic soil. The former is situated at Py$\ddot{o}$ngchangri, Ky$\ddot{o}$m-my$\ddot{o}$n, Kogs$\ddot{o}$ng-gun, Ch$\ddot{o}$llanam-do (3.63 ha; slope, $17^{\circ}{\sim}41^{\circ}$ soil depth, thin or medium; humidity, dry or optimum; height, 5.66/3.73 ~ 7.63 m; D.B.H., 9.7/8.00 ~ 12.00 cm) and the Latter at changun-long Kwangju-shi (3.50 ha; slope, $12^{\circ}{\sim}23^{\circ}$; soil depth, thin; humidity, dry; height, 10.47/7.3 ~ 12.79 m; D.B.H., 16.94/14.3 ~ 19.4 cm).The sampling areas were 24quadrats ($10m{\times}10m$) in the former area and 12 in the latter expanding from summit to foot. Each sampling trees for hardness test and investigation of root distribution were selected by purposive selection and soil profiles of these trees were made at the downward distance of 50 cm from the trees, at each quadrat. Soil layers of the profile were separated by the distance of 10 cm from the surface (layer I, II, ... ...). Soil hardness was measured with Yamanaka soil hardness tester and indicated as indicated soil hardness at the different soil layers. The distribution of tree root number per unit area in different soil depth was investigated, and the relationship between the soil hardness and the number of tree roots was discussed. The results obtained from the experiments are summarized as follows. 1. Analyses of simple relationship between shear strength and elements of shear strength, water content ($w_o$), void ratio ($e_o$), dry density (${\gamma}_d$) and specific gravity ($G_s$). 1) Negative correlation coefficients were recognized between shear strength and water content. and shear strength and void ratio. 2) Positive correlation coefficients were recognized between shear strength and dry density. 3) The correlation coefficients between shear strength and specific gravity were not significant. 2. Analyses of partial and multiple correlation coefficients between shear strength and the related elements: 1) From the analyses of the partial correlation coefficients among water content ($x_1$), void ratio ($x_2$), and dry density ($x_3$), the direct effect of the water content on shear strength was the highest, and effect on shear strength was in order of void ratio and dry density. Similar trend was recognized from the results of multiple correlation coefficient analyses. 2) Multiple linear regression equations derived from two independent variables, water content ($x_1$ and dry density ($x_2$) were found to be ineffective in estimating shear strength ($\hat{Y}$). However, the simple linear regression equations with an independent variable, water content (x) were highly efficient to estimate shear strength ($\hat{Y}$) with relatively high fitness. 3. A relationship between soil hardness and the distribution of root number: 1) The soil hardness increased proportionally to the soil depth. Negative correlation coefficients were recognized between indicated soil hardness and the number of tree roots in both plantations. 2) The majority of tree roots of Pinus rigida Mill and Pinus rigida ${\times}$ taeda planted in erosion-controlled lands distributed at 20 cm deep from the surface. 3) Simple linear regression equations were derived from indicated hardness (x) and the number of tree roots (Y) to estimate root numbers in both plantations.

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