• Title, Summary, Keyword: variational

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Applicability of plate tectonics to the post-late Cretaceous igneous activities and mineralization in the southern part of South Korea( I ) (한국남부(韓國南部)의 백악기말(白堊紀末) 이후(以後)의 화성활동(火成活動)과 광화작용(鑛化作用)에 대(對)한 판구조론(板構造論)의 적용성(適用性) 연구(硏究)( I ))

  • Min, Kyung Duck;Kim, Ok Joon;Yun, Suckew;Lee, Dai Sung;Joo, Sung Whan
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.123-154
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    • 1982
  • Petrochemical, K-Ar dating, Sand Rb/Sr isotopes, metallogenic zoning, paleomagnetic and geotectonic studies of the Gyongsang basin were carried out to examine applicability of plate tectonics to the post-late Cretaceous igneous activity and metallogeny in the southeastern part of Korean Peninsula. The results obtained are as follows: 1. Bulgugsa granitic rocks range from granite to adamellite, whose Q-Ab-Or triangular diagram indicates that the depth and pressure at which the magma consolidated increase from coast to inland varying from 6 km, 0.5-3.3 kb in the coastal area to 17 km, 0.5-10 kb in the inland area. 2. The volcanic rocks in Gyongsang basin range from andesitic to basaltic rocks, and the basaltic rocks are generally tholeiitic in the coastal area and alkali basalt in the inland area. 3. The volcanic rocks of the area have the initial ratio of Sr^{87}/Sr^{86} varying from 0.706 to 0.707 which suggests a continental origin; the ratio of Rb/Sr changing from 0.079-0.157 in the coastal area to 0.021-0.034 in the inland area suggests that the volcanism is getting younger toward coastal side, which may indicate a retreat in stage of differentiation if they were derived from a same magma. The K_2O/SiO_2 (60%) increases from about 1.0 in the coastal area to about 3.0 in the inland area, which may suggest an increase indepth of the Benioff zone, if existed, toward inland side. 4. The K-Ar ages of volcanic rocks were measured to be 79.4 m.y. near Daegu, and 61.7 m.y. near Busan indicating a southeastward decrease in age. The ages of plutonic rocks also decrease toward the same direction with 73 m.y. near Daegu, and 58 m.y. near Busan, so that the volcanism predated the plutonism by 6 m.y. in the continental interior and 4 m.y. along the coast. Such igneous activities provide a positive evidence for an applicability of plate tectonics to this area. 5. Sulfur isotope analyses of sulfide minerals from 8 mines revealed that these deposits were genetically connected with the spacially associated ingeous rocks showing relatively narrow range of ${\delta}^{34}S$ values (-0.9‰ to +7.5‰ except for +13.3 from Mulgum Mine). A sequence of metallogenic zones from the coast to the inland is delineated to be in the order of Fe-Cu zone, Cu-Pb-Zn zone, and W-Mo zone. A few porphyry type copper deposits are found in the Fe-Cu zone. These two facts enable the sequence to be comparable with that of Andean type in South America. 6. The VGP's of Cretaceous and post Cretaceous rocks from Korea are located near the ones($71^{\circ}N$, $180^{\circ}E$ and $90^{\circ}N$, $110^{\circ}E$) obtained from continents of northern hemisphere. This suggests that the Korean peninsula has been stable tectonically since Cretaceous, belonging to the Eurasian continent. 7. Different polar wandering path between Korean peninsula and Japanese islands delineates that there has been some relative movement between them. 8. The variational feature of declination of NRM toward northwestern inland side from southeastern extremity of Korean peninsula suggests that the age of rocks becomes older toward inland side. 9. The geological structure(mainly faults) and trends of lineaments interpreted from the Landsat imagery reveal that NNE-, NWW- and NEE-trends are predominant in the decreasing order of intensity. 10. The NNE-trending structures were originated by tensional and/or compressional forces, the directions of which were parallel and perpendicular respectively to the subduction boundary of the Kula plate during about 90 m.y. B.P. The NWW-trending structures were originated as shear fractures by the same compressional forces. The NEE-trending structures are considered to be priginated as tension fractures parallel to the subduction boundary of the Kula plate during about 70 m.y. B.P. when Japanese islands had drifted toward southeast leaving the Sea of Japan behind. It was clearly demonstrated by many authors that the drifting of Japanese islands was accompanied with a rotational movement of a clock-wise direction, so that it is inferred that subduction boundary had changed from NNE- to NEE-direction. A number of facts and features mentioned above provide a suite of positive evidences enabling application of plate tectonics to the late Cretaceous-early Tertiary igneous activity and metallogeny in the area. Synthesizing these facts, an arc-trench system of continental margin-type is adopted by reconstructing paleogeographic models for the evolution of Korean peninsula and Japan islands. The models involve an extention mechanism behind the are(proto-Japan), by which proto-Japan as of northeastern continuation of Gyongsang zone has been drifted rotationally toward southeast. The zone of igneous activity has also been migrated from the inland in late-Cretaceous to the peninsula margin and southwestern Japan in Tertiary.

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Structural and Compositional Characteristics of Skarn Zinc-Lead Deposits in the Yeonhwa-Ulchin Mining District, Southeastern Taebaegsan Region, Korea Part I: The Yeonhwa I Mine

  • Yun, Suckew
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.51-73
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    • 1979
  • The zinc-lead deposits at the Yeonhwa I mine were investigated in terms of ore-forming geologic setting, structural style of ore control, geometry of individual orebodies, zoning, paragenesis and chemical composition of skarn minerals, as well as metal grades and ratios of selected orebodies. The Yeonhwa I mine is characterized by a large swarm of chimney type massive orebodies with thin skarn envelopes, boldly developed through a thick sequence of Pungchon Limestone, the overlying Hwajeol Formation, and the underlying Myobong Slate of Cambrian age. Nearly 20 orebodies of similar shape, but of varying size are arranged in a V-shaped pattern with northwest and northeast trends, clearly indicating an outstanding ore control by a conjugate system of fractures with these trends. Important orebodies are the Wolam 1, 2, 3, and 5 orebodies in the west, and the Namsan 1, 2, 3. and 5 orebodies in the east, among others. The Wolam 1 orebody, which was observed from the -360 level through the -240, -120, and 0 levels to the surface outcrops (totaling a vertical height of about 500m), shows a vertical variation in skarn mineralogy, ranging from pyroxene-garnet zone on the lower levels. through pyroxene (without garnet) zone on the intermediate levels, and finally to rhodochrosite vein on the upper levels and surface. Microprobe analyses of pyroxene and garnet on a total of 14 mineral grains revealed that pyroxenes are manganoan salitic in most samples, with downward increase of Fe and Mn, whereas garnets are highly andraditic, containing fractions of subordinate grossular with downward decrease of Fe. This indicates a reverse relationship of Fe-contents between pyroxene and garnet with depth. Ore minerals are major sphalerite, subordinate galena, and minor chalcopyrite. Sulfide gangue minerals include major pyrrhotite, and minor pyrite and marcasite of later age. Two types of variational trends in metal grades and ratios with depth are present on the plots of assay data from the Wolam orebodies: one is a steady upward increase in Pb, Zn, and Pb:Zn ratios, with a terminal decline at the top of orebody: the other is an irregular or sinusoidal change. The former is characteristic of chimney-type orebodies, whereas the latter is of vein· shaped orebodies. The Pb grades show large variations among orebodies and from level to level, whereas the Zn grades are relatively constand or less variable.

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A Study on History and Archetype Technology of Goli-su in Korea (한국 고리수의 역사와 원형기술의 복원 연구)

  • Kim, Young-ran
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.4-25
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    • 2013
  • Goli-su is the innovative special kind of the embroidery technique, which combines twining and interlacing skill with metal technology and makes the loops woven to each other with a strand. The loops floating on the space of the ground look like floating veins of sculpture and give people the feeling of the openwork. This kind of characteristic has some similarities with the lacework craft of Western Europe in texture and technique style, but it has its own features different from that of Western Europe. It mainly represents the splendid gloss with metallic materials in the Embroidered cloth, such as gold foil or wire. In the 10th century, early days of Goryo, we can see the basic Goli-su structure form of its initial period in the boy motif embroidery purse unearthed from the first level of Octagonal Nine-storied Pagoda of Woljeong-sa. In the Middle period of Joseon, there are several pieces of Goli-su embroidered relic called "Battle Flag of Goryo", which was taken by the Japanese in 1592 and is now in the Japanese temple. This piece is now converted into altar-table covers. In 18~19th century, two pairs of embroidered pillows in Joseon palace were kept intact, whose time and source are very accurate. The frame of the pillows was embroidered with Goli-su veins, and some gold foil papers were inserted into the inside. The triangle motif with silk was embroidered on the pillow. The stitch in the Needle-Looped embroidery is divided into three kinds according to comprehensive classification: 1. Goli-su ; 2. Goli-Kamgi-su ; 3. Goli-Saegim-su. From the 10th century newly establishing stage to the 13th century, Goli-su has appeared variational stitches and employed 2~3 dimensional color schemes gradually. According to the research of this thesis, we can still see this stitch in the embroidery pillow, which proves that Goli-suwas still kept in Korea in the 19th century. And in terms of the research achievement of this thesis, Archetype technology of Goli-su was restored. Han Sang-soo, Important Intangible Cultural Heritage No. 80 and Master of Embroidery already recreated the Korean relics of Goli-su in Joseon Dynasty. The Needle-Looped embriodery is the overall technological result of ancestral outstanding Metal craft, Twining and Interlacing craft, and Embroidery art. We should inherit, create, and seek the new direction in modern multi-dimensional and international industry societyon the basis of these research results. We can inherit the long history of embroidering, weaving, fiber processing, and expand the applications of other craft industries, and develop new advanced additional values of new dress material, fashion technology, ornament craft and artistic design. Thus, other crafts assist each other and broaden the expressive field to pursue more diversified formative beauty and beautify our life abundantly together.

A Study on the Faculty Evaluation Model with Considering the Characteristics of Education-Based Colleges (전문대학의 특성을 고려한 교수업적평가 모델 연구)

  • Hwang, Il-Kyu;Kim, Kyeong-Sook;Kwon, O-Young;Ahn, Tae-Won;Park, Young-Tae
    • Journal of vocational education research
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.23-49
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    • 2011
  • Faculty performance evaluation system has been settled down as an uncomfortable but unavoidable system, and it is one of the most important factors to grow the college competitiveness up. In this study, we selected and surveyed faculty evaluation models of several universities and colleges in Korea, and analyzed by comparing each evaluation areas of educational achievement, college-industry collaboration, research, and service. We also identified the properties of the current faculty evaluation models of the junior colleges, and derived several problems from these models such as an imitation of four-year university model, a disorders of job evaluation with respect to the attributes of classified jobs, a large variation of individual item weights, and an insufficient reflection of major characteristics. Based on these surveys and analysis, an improved faculty evaluation model for the junior college is proposed in this study. This model proposed four basic areas-educational achievement, college-industry collaboration, research, and service by considering the importance of the college-industry collaboration in the junior college-as well as the team evaluation area. Weights of the SCI-class paper was selected as a criterion for the arrangement of objective comparison of each evaluation items. We showed the integration method of several different evaluation model with respect to the attributes of classified jobs of each faculties, and evaluation plan of variational characteristics according to the majors of individuals in this model. Finally, we introduced an area fail and rating system to operate efficiently the proposed faculty evaluation model.

Impacts of Argo temperature in East Sea Regional Ocean Model with a 3D-Var Data Assimilation (동해 해양자료동화시스템에 대한 Argo 자료동화 민감도 분석)

  • KIM, SOYEON;JO, YOUNGSOON;KIM, YOUNG-HO;LIM, BYUNGHWAN;CHANG, PIL-HUN
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.119-130
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    • 2015
  • Impacts of Argo temperature assimilation on the analysis fields in the East Sea is investigated by using DAESROM, the East Sea Regional Ocean Model with a 3-dimensional variational assimilation module (Kim et al., 2009). Namely, we produced analysis fields in 2009, in which temperature profiles, sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH) anomaly were assimilated (Exp. AllDa) and carried out additional experiment by withdrawing Argo temperature data (Exp. NoArgo). When comparing both experimental results using assimilated temperature profiles, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the Exp. AllDa is generally lower than the Exp. NoArgo. In particular, the Argo impacts are large in the subsurface layer, showing the RMSE difference of about $0.5^{\circ}C$. Based on the observations of 14 surface drifters, Argo impacts on the current and temperature fields in the surface layer are investigated. In general, surface currents along the drifter positions are improved in the Exp. AllDa, and large RMSE differences (about 2.0~6.0 cm/s) between both experiments are found in drifters which observed longer period in the southern region where Argo density was high. On the other hand, Argo impacts on the SST fields are negligible, and it is considered that SST assimilation with 1-day interval has dominant effects. Similar to the difference of surface current fields between both experiments, SSH fields also reveal significant difference in the southern East Sea, for example the southwestern Yamato Basin where anticyclonic circulation develops. The comparison of SSH fields implies that SSH assimilation does not correct the SSH difference caused by withdrawing Argo data. Thus Argo assimilation has an important role to reproduce meso-scale circulation features in the East Sea.

Variational Characteristics of Phytoplankton Community in the Mouth Parts of Gamak Bay, Southern Korea (한국 남해 가막만 입구해역의 식물플랑크톤 군집 변동 특성)

  • Park, Jong-Sick;Yoon, Yang-Ho;Oh, Seok-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.205-215
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    • 2009
  • In order to understand on the seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton in the mouth parts of Gamak Bay, Korea, we investigated from one station during June 2005 to June 2006. Samples were collected every week during the high water temperature (${\geq}20^{\circ}C$), and every two weeks during the low water temperature (${\leq}20^{\circ}C$). The phytoplankton community were composed of 76 genera, 208 species in the surface layer, and 72 genera, 186 species in the bottom layer (total: 77 genera, 214 species). The number of occurring species fluctuated greatly throughout the year from 27 species (March 15, 2006) to 121 species (Aug. 16, 2005). High number of species showed between June and September (>70 species), whereas the low number of species showed during the period of the low water temperature below $20^{\circ}C$ (ca. 40 species). The predominant species were diatom Skeletonema costatum during whole year, and two naked dinoflagellates, Cochlodinium polykrikoides and Polykrikos kofoidii during high temperature seasons. However, centric diatoms, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Chaetoceros debilis and Eucampia zodiacus were dominant species during low temperature seasons. Standing crops of dinoflagellate showed great fluctuations, which were ranged from $3.0{\times}10^5\;cells\;L^{-1}$ (April 17, 2006) to $7.3{\times}10^5\;cells\;L^{-1}$ (Aug. 2, 2005) in the surface layer and from $1.5{\times}10^3\;cells\;L^{-1}$ (Nov. 9, 2005) to $3.9{\times}10^5\;cells\;L^{-1}$ (Aug. 16, 2005) in the bottom layer, and showed high during high temperature seasons such as the number of species. The fluctuations were greater in the surface layer than in the bottom layer. Moreover, the variation of Cochlodinium polykrikoides, is affected by Polykrikos kofoidii grazing.

Parametric and Non-parametric Trend Analysis of Groundwater Data Obtained from National Groundwater Monitoring Stations (국가 지하수관측소 지하수위, 전기전도도 및 수온자료에 대한 모수적 및 비모수적 변동 경향성 분석)

  • Lee, Jin-Yong;Yi, Myeong-Jae;Lee, Jae-Myeong;Ahn, Kyoung-Hwan;Won, Jong-Ho;Moon, Sang-Ho;Cho, Min-Joe
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.56-67
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    • 2006
  • Trends of variation in groundwater levels, electrical conductivities and water temperatures obtained from the national groundwater monitoring stations (95 shallow and 169 deep wells) of Korea were evaluated. For the analysis, both parametric (linear regression) and non-parametric (Mann-Kendall test, Sen's test) methods were adopted. Results of linear regression analysis indicated that about 50% of the monitoring wells showed increasing trends of groundwater levels, electrical conductivities, and water temperatures and the others showed decreasing trends. However, the non-parametric analyses with monthly median values revealed that $14.8{\sim}20.0%$ of water levels were decreased, $24.2{\sim}36.9%$ of electrical conductivities were increased, and $27.4{\sim}32.5%$ of water temperatures were increased at a confidence level of 99%. Highly proportions of increasing or decreasing trends were unexpected and they resulted from the relatively short term of data collection (maximum 6 years). Meanwhile, the investigation of groundwater around the national groundwater monitoring stations showed that the decreasing or increasing trends of water levels, electrical conductivities, themselves, didn't indicate directly groundwater hazards such as groundwater depletion or groundwater contamination. Both the values and variation rates (slopes) of water level, electrical conductivity and temperature in the longer period are considered simultaneously. This study is the first comprehensive work in analyzing trends of groundwater data obtained from the national groundwater monitoring stations. Based on this study, the periodical and regular analysis of groundwater data is essentially required to grasp the overall variational trend of groundwater resources in the country.

Development of Normalized Difference Blue-ice Index (NDBI) of Glaciers and Analysis of Its Variational Factors by using MODIS Images (MODIS 영상을 이용한 빙하의 정규청빙지수(NDBI) 개발 및 변화요인 분석)

  • Han, Hyangsun;Ji, Younghun;Kim, Yeonchun;Lee, Hoonyol
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.481-491
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    • 2014
  • Blue-ice area is a glacial ice field in ice sheet, ice shelf and glaciers where snow ablation and sublimation is larger than snowfall. As the blue-ice area has large influences on the meteorite concentration mechanism and ice mass balance, it is required to quantify the concentration of blue-ice. We analyzed spectral reflectance characteristics of blue-ice, snow and cloud by using MODIS images obtained over blue-ice areas in McMurdo Dry Valleys, East Antarctica, from 2007 to 2012. We then developed Normalized Difference Blue-ice Index (NDBI) algorithm which quantifies the concentration of blue-ice. Snow and cloud have a high reflectance in visible and near-infrared (NIR) bands. Reflectance of blue-ice is high in blue band, while that lowers in the NIR band. NDBI is calculated by dividing the difference of reflectance in the blue and NIR bands by the sum of reflectances in the two bands so that NDBI = (Blue-NIR)/(Blue + NIR). NDBI calculated from the MODIS images showed that the blue-ice areas have values ranging from 0.2 to 0.5, depending on the exposure and concentration of blue-ice. It is obviously different from that of snow and cloud that has values less than 0.2 or rocks with negative values. The change of NDBI values in the blue-ice area has higher correlation with snow depth ($R^2=0.699$) than wind speed ($R^2=0.012$) or air temperature ($R^2=0.278$), all measured at a meteorological station installed in McMurdo Dry Valleys. As the snow depth increased, the NDBI value decreased, which suggests that snow depth can be estimated from NDBI values over blue-ice areas. The NDBI algorithm developed in this study will be useful for various polar research fields such as meteorite exploration, analysis of ice mass balance as well as the snow depth estimation.