• Title/Summary/Keyword: vascular endothelial growth factor

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Increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in mice

  • Cho, Kyung-Ok;Kim, Joo Youn;Jeong, Kyoung Hoon;Lee, Mun-Yong;Kim, Seong Yun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.281-289
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    • 2019
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and its receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-3, are responsible for lymphangiogenesis in both embryos and adults. In epilepsy, the expression of VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 was significantly upregulated in the human brains affected with temporal lobe epilepsy. Moreover, pharmacologic inhibition of VEGF receptors after acute seizures could suppress the generation of spontaneous recurrent seizures, suggesting a critical role of VEGF-related signaling in epilepsy. Therefore, in the present study, the spatiotemporal expression of VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 against pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) was investigated in C57BL/6N mice using immunohistochemistry. At 1 day after SE, hippocampal astrocytes and microglia were activated. Pyramidal neuronal death was observed at 4 days after SE. In the subpyramidal zone, VEGF-C expression gradually increased and peaked at 7 days after SE, while VEGFR-3 was significantly upregulated at 4 days after SE and began to decrease at 7 days after SE. Most VEGF-C/VEGFR-3-expressing cells were pyramidal neurons, but VEGF-C was also observed in some astrocytes in sham-manipulated animals. However, at 4 days and 7 days after SE, both VEGFR-3 and VEGF-C immunoreactivities were observed mainly in astrocytes and in some microglia of the stratum radiatum and lacunosum-moleculare of the hippocampus, respectively. These data indicate that VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 can be upregulated in hippocampal astrocytes and microglia after pilocarpine-induced SE, providing basic information about VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 expression patterns following acute seizures.

Keratinocytic Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor as a Novel Biomarker for Pathological Skin Condition

  • Bae, Ok-Nam;Noh, Minsoo;Chun, Young-Jin;Jeong, Tae Cheon
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.12-18
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    • 2015
  • Skin is an emerging target tissue in pharmaceutical and cosmetic science. Safety assessment for dermal toxicity is a critical step for development of topically applicable pharmaceutical agents and ingredients in cosmetics. Urgent needs exist to set up toxicity testing methods for dermal safety, and identification of novel biomarkers for pathological cutaneous alteration is highly required. Here we will discuss if vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has a potential as a biomarker for dermal impairment. Experimental and clinical evidences for induction of keratinocytic VEGF under pathological conditions will be reviewed.

Pituitary Tumor-Transforming Gene (PTTG) Induces both Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF)

  • Cho, Sa-Yeon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.26 no.11
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    • pp.1823-1825
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    • 2005
  • Angiogenesis is tightly regulated by a variety of angiogenic activators and inhibitors. Disruption of the balanced angiogenesis leads to the progress of diseases such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetic blindness. Even though a number of proteins involved in angiogenesis have been identified so far, more protein factors remain to be identified due to complexity of the process. Here I report that pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG) induces migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). High levels of both vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are detected in conditioned medium obtained from cells transfected with PTTG expression plasmid. Taken together, these results suggest that PTTG is an angiogenic factor that induces production of both VEGF and bFGF.

THE EFFECTS OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I (IGF-I) ON EXPRESSION OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR (VEGF) MRNA IN MG-63 OSTEOBLASTLIKE CELLS (MG-63 세포주에서 Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) mRNA 발현에 대한 Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I)의 효과에 대한 연구)

  • Suh, Je-Duck;Myung, Hoon;Kang, Nara;Choung, Pill-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.363-369
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: To determine the role of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) in the regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) expression in MG-63 cells and then to find the mechanism b which this regulation occurs. Materials and methods: MG-63 cells were grown to confluence in 60-mm dishes. To determine the effects of IGF-I on expression of VEGF mRNA according to time and concentration, the cells were treated with 10 nM IGF-I, following isolation of total RNA and Northern blot analysis after 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 hours and after 2 hours of treatment with 0.5, 2, 10, 25, 50 nM IGF-I respectively, isolation of total RNA and Northern blot analysis were followed. To determine the mechanism of action of IGF-I, inhibitors such as hydroxyurea $(76.1\;{\mu}g/ml)$, actinomycin D $(2.5\;{\mu}g/ml)$, cycloheximide $(10\;{\mu}g/ml)$ were added 1 hour after treatment of 10 nM IGF-I. Results: 1. the expression of VEGF mRNA was increased with treatment of IGF-I. 2. The expression of VEGF mRNA was increased according to time-and concentration dependent manner of IGF-I. 3. The effect of IGF-I was decreased by hydroxyuera, actinomycin D, but not by cycloheximide. Conclusion: IGF-I regulate the expression of VEGF mRNA in the level of DNA synthesis and transcription. These results could suggest that IGF-I plays an important role in angiogenesis in the process of new bone formation and remodeling.

EXPRESSION OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR AND ITS RECEPTORS IN THE DISTRACTED PERIOSTEUM AFTER MANDIBULAR DISTRACTION OSTEOGENESIS (하악골 신장술 후 신생 골막조직에서의 혈관내피세포성장인자 및 혈관내피세포성장인자 수용체 발현에 대한 연구)

  • Hwang, Deung-Uc;Byun, June-Ho;Park, Bong-Wook;Kim, Jong-Ryoul
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.549-558
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    • 2006
  • During distraction osteogenesis, the angiogenic activity is crucial factor in the new bone formation. The aim of this study was to detect the autocrine growth activity in the cellular components of the distracted periosteum with observation of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors following the mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Unilateral mandibular distraction (0.5 mm twice per day for 10 days) was performed in six mongrel dogs. Two animals were sacrificed at 7, 14, and 28 days after completion of distraction, respectively. The distracted lingual periosteum was harvested and processed for immunohistochemical examinations. After then, we observed the expression of VEGF, Flt-1 (VEGFR-1), and Flk-1 (VEGFR-2) in the osteoblasts and immature mesenchymal cells of the distracted periosteum. At 7 days after distraction, the expression of VEGF and its receptors were significantly increased in the cellular components of the distracted periosteum. Up to 14 days following distraction, the increased expressions were maintained in the osteoblastic cells. At 28 days after distraction, the expression of VEGF and its receptors decreased, but VEGF was still expressed weak or moderate in the osteoblastic cells of distracted periosteum. The expression pattern of VEGF and its receptors shown here suggested that VEGF play an important role in the osteogenesis, and these osteoblastic cell-derived VEGF might act as autocrine growth factor during distraction osteogenesis. In the other word, the cellular components in the distracted periosteum, such as osteoblasts and immature mesenchymal cells, might have autocrine growth activity during distraction osteogenesis.

ANTI-TUMOR EFFECTS OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR INHIBITOR ON ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA CELL LINES (혈관내피세포성장인자 억제제에 의한 구강편평상피세포암종 세포주의 성장 억제 효과)

  • Han, Se-Jin;Lee, Jae-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.66-73
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    • 2009
  • Tumor angiogenesis is a process leading to formation of blood vessels within tumors and is crucial for maintaining a supply of oxygen and nutrients to support tumor growth and metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) plays a key role in tumor angiogenesis including induction of endothelial cell proliferation, migration, survival and capillary tube formation. VEGF binds to two distinct receptors on endothelial cells. VEGFR-2 is considered to be the dominant signaling receptor for endothelial cell permeability, proliferation, and differentiation. Bevacizumab(Avastin, Genetech, USA) is a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor. It is used in the treatment of cancer, where it inhibits tumor growth by blocking the formation of new blood vessels. The goal of this study is to identify the anti-tumor effect of Bevacizumab(Avastin) for oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Human squamous cell carcinoma cell line(HN4) was used in this study. We examined the sensitivity of HN4 cell line to Bevacizumab(Avastin) by using in vitro proliferation assays. The results were as follows. 1. In the result of MTT assay according to concentration of Bevacizumab(Avastin), antiproliferative effect for oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines was observed. 2. The growth curve of cell line showed the gradual growth inhibition of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines after exposure of Bevacizumab(Avastin). 3. In the apoptotic index, groups inoculated Bevacizumab(Avastin) were higher than control groups. 4. In condition of serum starvation, VEGFR-2 did not show any detectable autophosphorylation, whereas the addition of VEGF activated the receptor. Suppression of phosphorylated VEGFR-2 and phosphorylated MAPK was observed following treatment with Bevacizumab(Avastin) in a dose-dependent manner. 5. In TEM view, dispersed nuclear membrane, scattered many cytoplasmic vacuoles and localized chromosomal margination after Bevacizumab(Avastin) treatment were observed. These findings suggest that Bevacizumab(Avastin) has the potential to inhibit MAPK pathway in proliferation of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines via inhibition of VEGF-dependent tumor growth.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibits irradiation-induced Apoptosis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (혈관내피세포에서 Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor가 방사선에 의해 유도된 apoptosis에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee Song Jae;Kim Dong-Yun
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.165-174
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    • 2002
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been identified as a peptide growth factor specific for vascular endothelial cells. In this study, we examined the effect of VEGF on radiation induced apoptosis and receptor/second messenger signal transduction pathway for VEGF effect in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). VEGF was found to protect HUVECs against the lethal effects of ionizing radiation by inhibiting the apoptosis induced in these cells by radiation exposure. VEGF (1-30 ng/ml) dose dependently inhibited apoptosis by irradiation. Pre-treatment with Flt-1 and Flk-l/KDR receptor blocked the VEGF-in duced antiapoptotic effect. Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-kinase) specific inhibitor, Wortman in and LY294002, blocked the VEGF-induced antiapoptotic effect. These data suggest that VEGF may play an important role in survival of HUVECs due to the prevention of apoptotic cell death caused by some stresses such as ionizing radiation.

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Culture of Endothelial Cells by Transfection with Plasmid Harboring Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

  • Chang, Sungjaae;Sohn, Insook;Park, Inchul;Sohn, Youngsook;Hong, Seokil;Choe, Teaboo
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.106-109
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    • 2000
  • Vascular endothelial cells (EGs) are usually difficult to culture to culture in a large scale because of their complicated requirements for cell growth. As the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key growth factor in the EC culture, we transfected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) using a plasmid containing VEGF gene and let them grow in a culture medium eliminated an important supplement, endothelail cell growth supplement(ECGS). The expression of VEGF by HUVEC tansfected with Vegf GENE was not enough to stimulate the growth of HUVEC, only 40% of maximum cell density obtainable in the presence of ECGS. However, when the culture medium was supplied with 2.5 ng/ml of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a synergistic effect effect of VEGE and bFGF was observed. In this case, the final cell density was recovered was recovered up to about 78% of maxium value.

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