• Title/Summary/Keyword: violation rate

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A Study on the Detecting Method of Intercept Violation Vehicles Using an Image Detection Techniques (영상검지기법을 활용한 끼어들기 위반차량 검지 방법에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Wan-Ki;Ryu, Boo-Hyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.164-170
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    • 2008
  • This research was verified detection way of intercept vehicles and performance evaluation after system installation using image detector as detection way of ground installation. By image recognition algorithm was on the trace of moving orbit of violation vehicles for detection way of intercept vehicles. When moving orbit is located special site, utilized geometric image calibration and DC-notch filter. These are cognitive system of license plate by making signal. Then, Bright Evidence Detection and Dark Evidence Detection were applied to after mixing. It is applied to way of Backward tracking for detection way of intercept vehicles. After the field evaluation of developed system, it should be analyzed the more high than recognition rate of minimum standards 80%. It should rise in the estimation of the site applicability is highly from now.

Tendency of Residual Pesticides in Commercial Agricultural Products in Gyeongsangbuk-Do Area (the year 2004~2008) (경상북도 내 유통 농산물 중의 잔류농약 동향 (2004~2008년))

  • Yang, S.T.;Son, J.C.;Jung, K.H.;Lee, C.I.;Kim, M.J.;Park, H.S.;Cha, Chun-Geun
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.338-347
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    • 2009
  • The content of residual pesticides in commercial agricultural products in Gyeongsangbuk-Do area was investigated for 5 years extending the year 2004 through 2008. The detection rates of residual pesticides in agricultural products by year were similar in range of 11.6~16.4%. But the violation rates showed lower values in the last years from 4.5% of the year 2004 to 0% of the year 2007. The highest residual concentration of each pesticide detected in commercial agricultural products was investigated by year. That is, in the year 2004 and 2005, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, diazinon, endosulfan, ethoprophos, fenarimol and procymidone were detected over the tolerance in kale, parsley, celery, chard and lettuce, and in the year 2006, permethrin in the soybean and peanut. The detection rate and violation rate of pesticides were highly increased in the order of the endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, procymidone, chlorfenapyr, fenitrothion, imazalil, isoprothiolane, methidathion and permethrin. The detection rate and violation rate of pesticides were increased after August every year.

The Use of Pedicle Screw-Rod System for the Posterior Fixation in Cervico-Thoracic Junction

  • Cho, Won-ik;Eid, Ahmed Shawky;Chang, Ung-Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.46-52
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    • 2010
  • Objective : In cervico-thoracic junction (CTJ), the use of strong fixation device such as pedicle screw-rod system is often required. Purpose of this study is to analyze the anatomical features of C7 and T1 pedicles related to screw insertion and to evaluate the safety of pedicle screw insertion at these levels. Methods : Nineteen patients underwent posterior CTJ fixation with C7 and/or T1 included in fixation levels. Seventeen patients had tumorous conditions and two with post-laminectomy kyphosis. The anatomical features were analyzed for C7 and T1 pedicles in 19 patients using computerized tomography (CT). Pedicle screw and rod fixation system was used in 16 patients. Pedicle violation by screws was evaluated with postoperative CT scan. Results : The mean values of the width, height, stable depth, safety angle, transverse angle, and sagittal angle of C7 pedicles were $6.9{\pm}1.34\;mm$, $8.23{\pm}1.18\;mm$, $30.93{\pm}4.65\;mm$, $26.42{\pm}7.91$ degrees, $25.9{\pm}4.83$ degrees, and $10.6{\pm}3.39$ degrees. At T1 pedicles, anatomic parameters were similar to those of C7. The pedicle violation revealed that 64.1% showed grade I violation and 35.9% showed grade II violation, overall. As for C7 pedicle screw insertion, grade I was 61.5% and grade II 38.5%. At T1 level, grade I was 65.0% and grade II 35.0%. There was no significant difference in violation rate between the whole group, C7, and T1 group. Conclusion : C7 pedicles can withstand pedicle screw insertion. C7 pedicle and T1 pedicle are anatomically very similar. With the use of adequate fluoroscopic oblique view, pedicle screw can be safely inserted at C7 and T1 levels.

Directions in Development of Enforcement System for Moving Violation in Intersection (무인교통단속장비를 이용한 교차로 꼬리물기 단속 가능성 연구)

  • Lee, Ho-Won;Hyun, Cheol-Seung;Joo, Doo-Hwan;Kim, Dong-Hyo;Lee, Choul-Ki;Park, Dae-Hyun
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.32-39
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    • 2011
  • Even if the traffic light is green, if vehicles enter a jammed intersection, they are violation of the law. The police is enforcing law as a part of a nation wide campaign. Because, using the camcorder, the police can not do enforcement the offending vehicle, there are other techniques. Our research group proposed automated photographic equipment enable to enforce moving violation in intersection. Using new license plate recognition technology and backtracking technology to trace the offending vehicle, once the system detects a violator, it records 8 wide pictures and 1picture from the front vehicle, showing it enter and proceed through the intersection. Field experimental results obtained in the system, the following conclusions. The three measures of effectiveness investigated were recognition rate 83.5, mis-match recognition rate 1.5%.

Large-Scale Joint Rate and Power Allocation Algorithm Combined with Admission Control in Cognitive Radio Networks

  • Shin, Woo-Jin;Park, Kyoung-Youp;Kim, Dong-In;Kwon, Jang-Woo
    • Journal of Communications and Networks
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.157-165
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    • 2009
  • In this paper, we investigate a dynamic spectrum sharing problem for the centralized uplink cognitive radio networks using orthogonal frequency division multiple access. We formulate a large-scale joint rate and power allocation as an optimization problem under quality of service constraint for secondary users and interference constraint for primary users. We also suggest admission control to nd a feasible solution to the optimization problem. To implement the resource allocation on a large-scale, we introduce a notion of using the conservative factors $\alpha$ and $\beta$ depending on the outage and violation probabilities. Since estimating instantaneous channel gains is costly and requires high complexity, the proposed algorithm pursues a practical and implementation-friendly resource allocation. Simulation results demonstrate that the large-scale joint rate and power allocation incurs a slight loss in system throughput over the instantaneous one, but it achieves lower complexity with less sensitivity to variations in shadowing statistics.

A Study on Introduction to the Highway Lane Usage Violation Enforcement System (고속도로 차로통행방법 위반단속체계 구상)

  • Lee, Ki-Young;Lee, Don-Ju;Chang, Myung-Soon;Kim, Tae-Ho
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.42-51
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    • 2009
  • Korean government is managing a system that appoints various type of cars into lanes based on the number of lanes. The institution has been abolished and enacted time and again. This paper analyzes ten sections of express way to clarify the efficiencies of the system. The result shows that violation rate and the number of accident have a positive correlation. This paper suggests regulation of violating cars and controlment by perceiving car registration number for efficient operation of the institution.

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Energy constraint control in numerical simulation of constrained dynamic system

  • 윤석준
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.376-382
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    • 1991
  • In the analysis of constrained holonomic systems, the Lagange multiplier method yields a system of second-order ordinary differential equations of motion and algebraic constraint equations. Conventional holonomic or nonholonomic constraints are defined as geometric constraints in this paper. Previous works concentrate on the geometric constraints. However, if the total energy of a dynamic system can be computed from the initial energy plus the time integral of the energy input rate due to external or internal forces, then the total energy can be artificially treated as a constraint. The violation of the total energy constraint due to numerical errors can be used as information to control these errors. It is a necessary condition for accurate simulation that both geometric and energy constraints be satisfied. When geometric constraint control is combined with energy constraint control, numerical simulation of a constrained dynamic system becomes more accurate. A new convenient and effective method to implement energy constraint control in numerical simulation is developed based on the geometric interpretation of the relation between constraints in the phase space. Several combinations of energy constraint control with either Baumgarte's Constraint Violation Stabilization Method (CVSM) are also addressed.

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Reasons for Violation of the Self Carfree Day Policy (승용차요일제 준수와 위반에 미치는 영향 분석)

  • Bin, Mi-Yeong;Jeong, Ui-Seok
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.61-73
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    • 2010
  • This research is to analyze reasons for violation of the Self Carfree day policy. It also analyzes satisfaction of the policy participation incentives. The results are that the violation rate is increasing if the drivers live in a zone which is highly energy consuming, which has low potential demand per bus stop and low trip generation per number of houses, which therefore requires more bus routes and bus services, and in which the drivers pay more car operating fees and show less tendancy towards participation even with the 5-10% oil price increase. The results are significant at the 0.05 level.

A Survey on Pesticide Residues of Commercial Agricultural Products in Gwangju Area (광주지역 유통 농산물의 농약 잔류실태 조사연구)

  • Kim Jongpil;Gang Gyunglee;Yang Yongshik;Lee Hyanghee;Chung Jaekeun;Kim Eunsun
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.165-174
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    • 2005
  • This survey was conducted to monitor the current status of pesticide residues in agricultural products collected in wholesale markets and big retailers in Gwangju, in 2004. A total of 751 samples was analyzed by multiresidue method. Vegetables and fruits accounted for the largest proportion of the commodities analyzed and those two commodity groups comprised 604 $(80\%)\;and\;83\;(11\%)$ of the total number of 751 samples. Of these 751 samples, 112 samples $(14.9\%)$ had pesticide residues and 29 samples $(3.9\%)$ had violative residues. The detection rate was the highest $25\%$ in January and the lowest $9.5\%$ in June. The violation rate was the highest $7.0\%$ in March and the lowest $0\%$ in April. The violation rate in wholesale products was higher than that in big retailer products, $5.8\%$ verses $3.5\%$. And of 112 samples with pesticide residues, the agricultural product in which the pesticide residues were the most flequently detected was perilla leaf $(17.9\%)$ followed by korean lettuce $(16.1\%)$, spinach $(8.0\%)$ and korean cabbage $(5.4\%)$ and among 112 samples, 22 samples $(20\%)$ had more than one pesticide. Procymidone $(20.3\%)$, endosulfan $(18.2\%)$, dimethomorph $(13.3\%)$, chlorpyrifos $(7.7\%)$ and azoxystrobin $(6.3\%)$ were the most frequently found in agricultural product analyzed.

Crashes and Traffic Signal Violations Caused by Commercial Motorcycle Couriers

  • Shin, Dong Seok;Byun, Jong Han;Jeong, Byung Yong
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.213-218
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    • 2019
  • Background: Motorcycles are one of the important members of commercial transportation because of the convenient use during congested traffic conditions and the ease of parking in narrow streets. This study investigates the characteristics of crashes and traffic signal violations caused by motorcycle couriers. Methods: From the national compensation data, this study analyzed the traffic crashes caused by 671 motorcycle couriers. Results: Among 671 injured couriers, 50.6% were aged less than 40 years, 49.2% run in a small business of <5 employees, and 47.2% had work experience of <6 months. Motorcycle crashes occurred mainly due to "rider overturned alone" (67.5%), in the daytime (73.5%), or on cloudy or clear days (77.2%). However, the violation rate caused by motorcycle couriers was high in couriers in a small business of <5 employees (13.9%), with work experience of <6 months (13.9%), on cloudy or clear days (12.4%), on an intersection (29.8%), in the type of "crash with a vehicle" (31.2%), or in a death accident (35.7%) Conclusion: The findings of this study can be used as a baseline in devising policies for preventing crashes of motorcycle couriers.