• Title, Summary, Keyword: volatile components

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Studies on Fine Spirits Aging [Part I]-On the Aptitude of the Korean Oak Varieties as Barrels for Aging Apple Fine Spirits- (증류주(蒸溜酒) 숙성(熟成)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) 제1보[第一報]-사과 증류주(蒸溜酒) 숙성(熟成)에 있어서 숙성통재(熟成桶材)로서 한국산(韓國産) 참나무 품종별(品種別) 이용적성(利用適性)에 관(關)하여-)

  • Lee, Ke-Ho
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.66-80
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    • 1977
  • This research was carried as a part of the basic study, in which the aptitude of theKorean oak varieties as barrels for aging apple fine spirits was investigated, and thefollowing results were obtained. 1. Following was the result of the chemical analysis of the fruits which are now mass-produced and can be used as a substitute for raw materials for wine production. Apple (Malus pumila Miller var. domestica Schneider) : Total sugar. total acid, volatile acid and pectin of Jonathan (Hong-og) were 13.95%, 0.46%, 0.012%, 0.20% respectively. Total sugar, total acid, volatile acid and pectin of Ralls (Koog-kwang) were 13.35%, 0.43%, 0.011%, 0.45% respectively. 2. Because of low yield of apple juice due to cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose which are present besides sugars, acids in apples, the apple juice were treated with xylanase of Aspergillus niger SUAFM-430, cellulase and pectinase of Aspergillus niger SUAFM-6. This treatment increased the yield of apple juice. And the apple juice was sterilized by adding potassium metabisulfite $(K_2S_20_5)$ and Saccharomyces cerevisae var. ellipsoideus Rasse Johannisberg II (SUAFM-1018) as a cultivation yeast, which has a strong fermentation power was used to ferment. The yield of apple wine based on raw material was 86-87%. The amount of ethanol, extract and methanol obtained from Jonathan and Ralls were 13.5%, 5.4%, 0.04-0.05% respectively. 3. Wines were distilled for two times by the pot still method to make fine spirits. The yield of fine spirits from apple wine mash was 86.6%, and the pH of fine spirits from Jonathan and Ralls were 4.1, 4.2 respectively. 4. The oak chips made of inner part or outer part of 24 Korean oak varieties were used to select the barrel for aging fine spirits. Two oak chips (one oak chip: $1{\times}1{\times}5cm$) of the inner part or of the outer part of each oak variety were dipped into 300 ml of fine spirits, which was bottled in 640ml beer bottle, and followed aging. The colors, flavors and tastes of the fine spirits were checked during 6 months. A. As a criterion for the first screening of oak barrels for aging fine spirits, the rate five of color extraction was determined. The oak chips showed good results in their order as follows and the best 5 varieties were selected. Gal-cham: Quercus aliena Blume (Inner part), Gul-cham: Quercus variabilis Blume (Outer part), Gal-chain: Quercus aliena Blume (Outer part), Jol-cham: Quercus serrata Thumb (Inner and Outer part). Sin-gal-cham: Quercus mongolica Fisher (Outer and Inner part) Sang-su-ri: Quercus acutissima Carruthers (Outer and Inner part) B. To find out the influence of aging temperature on aging, apple fine spirits were aged by dipping each oak chip at room temperature $(24-25^{\circ}C)$) and $45^{\circ}C$. Aging at $45^{\circ}C$ gave the best result followed aging at $30^{\circ}C$ and then at room temperature. C. Apple fine spirits was aged for six months by dipping oak chips in Erlenmeyer flasks and was irradiated with U.V light. The U.V irradiation enhanced the aging effect by nearly two times, compared with the aging without U.V irradiation. D. In aging apple fine spirits by dipping two oak chips, it was observed that the extent of the extraction of most components of oak chips were strongly dependent upon the pH of fine spirits. E. Oak chips of five selected oak varieties and a Limousin white oak from France as a control were used. Each apple fine spitits was dipped by two oak chips, and was aged at room temperature $(24-25^{\circ}C)$, $30^{\circ}C$, $45^{\circ}C$, and with the U.V irradiation at room temperature shaking every week. After six months of aging, the panel test of these aged fine spirits (Young Brandy) showed the following result. Young brandy of apples aged at $45^{\circ}C$ by dipping oak chips of Gal-chain was almost as the fine spirits which were aged at room temperature by dipping Limousin white oak chips from France. Young brandy of with U.V. irradiation at room temperature which were aged by dipping oak chips of Gal-chain was a little worse than that from the fine spirits aged at room temperature by dipping Limousin white oak chips from France. And so, Korean oak varieties are thought to be able to be used for aging every apple fine spirit which was here investigated.

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Physicochemical Properties of Pearl Oyster Muscle and Adductor Muscle as Pearl Processing Byproducts (진주 가공부산물(육 및 패주)의 이화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Jin-Soo;Kim, Hye-Suk;Oh, Hyeun-Seok;Kang, Kyung-Tae;Han, Gang-Uk;Kim, In-Soo;Jeong, Bo-Young;Moon, Soo-Kyung;Heu, Min-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.464-469
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to evaluate a knowledge on food components of muscle and adductor muscle of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata martensii) as pearl processing byproducts. The concentrations of mercury and chromium as heavy metal were not detected in both pearl oyster muscle and adductor muscle, and those of cadmium and lead were 0.06 ppm and 0.11 ppm in only pearl oyster muscle, respectively. Thus, the heavy metal levels of pearl processing byproducts were below the reported safety limits. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) content and pH of pearl oyster muscle were 11.6 mg/100g and 6.31 and those of abductor muscle were 8.6 mg/100 g and 6.33, respectively. It was concluded that pearl oyster muscle and adductor muscle might not invoke health risk in using food resource. The contents of crude protein (16.5%) and total amino acid (15,691 mg/100 g) of adductor muscle were higher than those of muscle (11.2% and 10,131 mg/100 g) and oyster (12.1% and 11,213 mg/100 g) as a control. The contents of calcium and phosphorus were 95.4 mg/100 g and 116.0 mg/100 g in muscle, 75.2 mg/100g and 148.1 mg/100 g in adductor muscle, respectively. The calcium level based on phosphorus was a good ratio for absorbing calcium. The free amino acid contents and taste values were 635.5 mg/100 g and 40.2 in muscle, and 734.9 mg/100 g and 24.1 in adductor muscle, respectively, but that (882.8 mg/100 g and 40.2) of oyster was higher than those of pearl processing byproducts. Based on the results of physicochemical and nutritional properties, pearl oyster muscle and adductor muscle can be utilized as a food resource.