• Title, Summary, Keyword: volatile compounds

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Impact of Indoor Air Quality on the Eye Conditions of Occupants in Newly-built University Buildings (새 학교 건물 내 실내공기질이 재실자의 안구에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Woo-Jae;Kim, Sun-Duk;Kim, Hyojin;Kim, Ho-Hyun;Lee, Cheol-Min;Kim, Yoon-Shin
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.201-207
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study was to find out the influence on eyes of indoor air quality in college students taking course, such as Sick-building syndrome symptoms and effects on the eye in new-built university buildings. Methods: We selected a new building in a university located in Metro Seoul and college students in a department for the study. The number of total participants was 33, to whom questionnaire surveys were conducted in advance to check individual traits (gender, age, whether to smoke, whether to wear contact lenses, or whether to drink). The first questionnaire surveys and checking of ocular symptoms to first indoor hazardous materials were conducted in October and two months later the second surveys and checking were carried out in December. The indoor air quality was measured when conducting the first questionnaire surveys and the second questionnaire surveys; especially measurements of gaseous materials such as aldehydes and VOCs in the indoor air were conducted. Results: Indoor air quality of the new building was as follows: formaldehyde level was 22.90 ${\mu}g/m^3$ in the first measurement and 16.79 ${\mu}g/m^3$ in the second measurement. In addition, most materials showed higher value in the first measurement. The level of TVOC was statistically significant (p<0.05) decreased on 448.54 ${\mu}g/m^3$ in the first and 62.55 ${\mu}g/m^3$ in the second. In clinical assessments to check ocular symptoms caused by eye irritations, dry eye syndrome was found in the first and second exposures. When comparing the first and second assessments, dry eyes deteriorated in the morning of the second attempt compared to the first one. Conclusions: In the survey of ocular symptoms and the measurement of indoor air quality, the level of formaldehyde was measured higher in the second attempt than the first; thus, it was confirmed the influence of indoor air quality in a new building upon ocular symptoms of occupants.

Measurements of Isoprene and Monoterpenes at Mt. Taehwa and Estimation of Their Emissions (경기도 태화산에서 isoprene과 monoterpenes 측정 및 배출량 산정)

  • Kim, Hakyoung;Lee, Meehye;Kim, Saewung;Guenther, Alex.B.;Park, Jungmin;Cho, Gangnam;Kim, Hyun Seok
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.217-226
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    • 2015
  • To investigate the distributions of BVOCs (Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds) from mountain near mega city and their role in forest atmospheric, BVOCs and their oxidized species were measured at a 41 m tower in Mt. Taehwa during May, June and August 2013. A proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used to quantify isoprene and monoterpenes. In conjunction with BVOCs, $O_3$, meteorological parameters, PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) and LAI (Leaf Area Index) were measured. The average concentrations of isoprene and monoterpenes were 0.71 ppbv and 0.17 ppbv, respectively. BVOCs showed higher concentrations in the early summer (June) compared to the late summer (August). Isoprene started increasing at 2 PM and reached the maximum concentration around 5 PM. In contrast, monoterpenes concentrations began to increase 4 PM and stayed high at night. The $O_3$ maximum was generally found at 3 PM and remained high until 5 PM or later, which was concurrent with the enhancement of $O_3$. The concentrations of BVOCs were higher below canopy (18 m) than above canopy, which indicated these species were produced by trees. At night, monoterpenes concentrations were negatively correlated with these of $O_3$ below canopy. Using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature), the emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes were estimated at 1.1 ton/year and 0.9 ton/year, respectively at Mt. Taehwa.

The Qualities of Liquor Distilled from Ipguk (koji) or Nuruk under Reduced or Atmospheric Pressure (입국과 누룩으로 제조한 술의 감압과 상압증류 특성)

  • Lee, Dae Hyoung;Lee, Yong Sun;Cho, Chang Hui;Park, In Tae;Kim, Hui-Dong;Kim, Jae-Ho;Ahn, Byung Hak
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2014
  • This study aimed to analyze the general ingredients and volatile compounds of ipguk (koji) and nuruk soju distilled under reduced pressure (RP) or atmospheric pressure (AP) conditions. After the secondary brewing process, soju made using ipguk had a final fermentation alcohol content of $18.0{\pm}0.6%$, whereas soju made using nuruk reached $14.3{\pm}1.7%$. The level of succinic acid was the highest in ipguk soju ($7,685.33{\pm}34.97$ ppm), but nuruk soju also showed a high level of succinic acid ($5,945.79{\pm}76.30$ ppm) after its final fermentation. In an analysis of fusel alcohol content, the level of n-propanol in ipguk soju (389.10-397.27 ppm) was similar under different RP (50 cm Hg and 60 cm Hg) and AP conditions ($80^{\circ}C$ and $90^{\circ}C$). Under RP and AP conditions, the isoamyl alcohol/isobutanol (A/B) ratio was similar, ranging from 1.32-1.35. In ipguk soju distilled under RP conditions of 50 cm Hg and 60 cm Hg, the amount of the toxic component, acetaldehyde, was 8.59 and 9.27 ppm, respectively. Under AP conditions, the amount of acetaldehyde in ipguk soju distilled at 80 and $90^{\circ}C$ was 9.80 and 10.63 ppm, respectively, indicating that the amount of acetaldehyde did not differ depending on the distilling method used. These results suggest that the liquor distilled from the mash produced using ipguk under RP conditions may be of a higher quality.

Changes in Quality of Spray-dried and Freeze-dried Takju Powder during Storage (분무 및 동결 건조 탁주 분말의 저장 중 품질변화)

  • Jeong, Jin-Woong;Park, Kee-Jai;Kim, Myung-Ho;Kim, Dong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.513-520
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    • 2006
  • Spray-dried (SD) and freeze-dried (FD) takju powders were stored at 5, 15 and $25^{\circ}C$, and various quality characteristics such as moisture, amino nitrogen, color value, total viable cell count, total sugar, reducing sugar organic acid, and flavor compounds were measured for 50 days at 10-day intervals. After 50 days of storage, the moisture content was increased from an initial 6.64% to 7.24-7.38% in the SD powder, and from an initial 4.86 to 5.43-5.61% in the FD powder. pH, total acid content and total viable cell counts were slightly increased. Organic acid content was decreased in the SD powder from an initial 3,949.9 mg% to 805.9-922.3 mg%, and in the FD powder from an initial 5,171.5 mg% to 3,646.0-4,110.2 mg%. Amino nitrogen content was increased in the SD powder from an initial 1.2% to 1.9-2.2% and in the FD powder from an initial 1.9% to 2.2-2.5%. Total sugar and reducing sugar contents were increased in the SD powder from an initial 17.2% and 4.0% to 25.9-27.3% and 5.8-6.9%, and in the FD powder from an initial 19.1% and 5.2% to 29.2-30.2% and 8.3-8.8%, respectively. With increasing storage time, L and b values in the SD powder increased slowly, while L value in the FD powder tended to decrease and b value tended to increase. About 20 major volatile flavor components were identified in the SD and FD powders by GC-MS and all such component levels were decreased with increasing storage time.

ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OILS ON ORAL BACTERIA (구강 내 세균에 대한 Essential oil의 항균효과에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sun-Young;Kim, Jae-Gon;Baik, Byeong-Ju;Yang, Yeon-Mi;Lee, Kyung-Yeol;Lee, Yong-Hoon;Kim, Mi-A
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2009
  • Essential oils are mixture of volatile, lipophilic compounds originating from plants. Essential oils have potential biological effects, i.e., antibacterial, antifungal, spasmolytic and antiplasmodial activities and insect-repellent property. In this study, five essential oils, namely R, LG, FR, O, and NM, extracted from various aromatic plants were used to test their antimicrobial activity against the oral microorganisms. The effects of essential oils were investigated against eight important bacteria, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Streptococcus sanguis (S. sanguis), Streptococcus anginosus (S. anginosus), Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans), Streptococcus sobrinus (S. sobrinus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Essential oils, except NM, effectively inhibited the growth of tested oral pathogenic microorganisms dose-dependently. However, the essential oils didn't show a significant inhibitory effect against E. coli and S. epidermidis. Consequently, these results represented that essential oil-mediated anti-microbial activity was prominent against the oral pathogenic bacteria. For example, minimum bactericidal concentration(MBC) of R, LG, FR oil against A. actinomycetemcomitans was very low as 0.078 mg/mL. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of R, LG, FR, O oil against S. mutans was low as 0.156 mg/mL in vitro.

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Antioxidant Activity and Main Volatile Flavor Components of Mulberry Wine Fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae B-8 (토종발효미생물을 이용한 오디 발효주의 항산화 활성 및 향기성분 분석)

  • Chae, Kyu Seo;Jung, Ji Hye;Yoon, Hae Hoon;Son, Rak Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.7
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    • pp.1017-1024
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to develop mulberry wines fermented with traditional microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae B-8). S. cerevisiae B-8 is a traditional fermentation microorganism isolated from domestically grown Rubus occidentalis. Each S. cerevisiae B-8 and Fermivin was inoculated into mulberry up to $1{\times}10^9$ CFU/kg, followed by incubation at $25^{\circ}C$ for 10 days. Mulberry fermented with S. cerevisiae B-8 (MBB) had a high alcohol content (16.47%), and the fermentation rate of MBB was faster than that of mulberry fermented with Fermivin (MBF). The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of MBB were higher than those of MBF. DPPH radical scavenging activity of MBB was as high as that of MBF. ABTS radical scavenging activity of MBF was higher than those of MBB and mulberry juice (MBJ). In addition, reducing power of MBB was much higher than other samples. Flavor constituents of the two fermented wines were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Twenty-three compounds from the sample were separated and identified as fifteen esters, six alcohols, an aldehyde, and an acetate. Particularly, tetradecanoic acid, ethyl ester of orris and violet flavor were ten times more abundant in MBB than in MBF. Several ester components were two times more abundant in MBB than in MBF. In conclusion, current findings indicate that MBB might have better antioxidant activities with flavor, which contributes to improved wine production with high quality and function.

Comparison of Quality and Bioactive Compounds in Chicken Thigh Meat from Conventional and Animal Welfare Farm in Korea (국내 일반 및 동물복지 육계 다리육의 냉장 저장 기간 중 품질과 생리활성기능 성분 비교)

  • Kim, Hee-Jin;Kim, Hye-Jin;Jeon, Jin-Ju;Oh, Sang-Jip;Nam, Ki-Chang;Shim, Kwan-Seob;Jung, Jong-Hyun;Kim, Kyong Su;Choi, Yang-Il;Kim, Sang-Ho;Jang, Aera
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.261-272
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the difference in the quality of chicken thigh meat from conventional and animal welfare farms during refrigeration storage over 9 days. Chicken thigh meat from conventional (CTC, n = 30) and animal welfare farms (CTW, n = 30) was tested. The pH value was significantly lower in CTW (6.28) than in CTC (6.37) on day 1; however, no significant differences were found on subsequent days. The yellowness of CTW was higher than that of CTC on day 1, but CTW showed lower yellowness than did CTC on day 7 and 9. The cooking loss, water holding capacity, lightness, redness, and coliform levels of CTC did not show any significant difference when compared with CTW during storage. The shear force of CTW was significantly higher than that of CTC on day 1, 3, 7, and 9. Total microorganism and coliform in CTC and CTW increased with increasing storage days. On day 7 and 9, the total microorganism level of CTW was lower than that of CTC. The thiobarbituric acid value of CTW was lower than that of CTC on day 9. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) of CTW was lower than that of CTC during storage. Anserine content and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl(DPPH) scavenging activity of CTW was significantly higher than CTC on day 1. These results suggest that CTW stayed fresher for longer than did CTC because of low total microorganism level on day 7 and 9, and VBN during refrigerated storage.

Removal Efficiency of Ammonia and Toluene using Mobile Scrubber (이동형 스크러버를 이용한 암모니아 및 톨루엔의 제거 효율)

  • Kim, Jae-Young;Kim, Jang-Yoon;Lee, Yeon Hee;Kim, Min Sun;Kim, Min-Su;Kim, Hyun Ji;Ryu, Tae In;Jeong, Jae Hyeong;Hwang, Seung-Ryul;Kim, Kyun;Lee, Jin Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND: The mobile vortex wet scrubber was developed to remove the harmful chemicals from accidental releases. However, there was a disadvantage that it was limitedly used for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as toluene according to the physicochemical properties. This study compared the removal efficiencies of an improved mobile scrubber on toluene and ammonia by applying diverse adsorption and absorption methods. METHODS AND RESULTS: The removal efficiencies on harmful chemicals were examined using various adsorption and absorption methods of water vortex process (C), phosphoric acid-impregnated activated carbon adsorption (PCA), pH-controlled water (pH 2.5) vortex process absorption with sulfuric acid (SWA) after ammonia exposure, granular activated carbon adsorption (GCA), and activated carbon mat adsorption (CMA) after toluene exposure. As a result, the best removal efficiency was shown in the SWA for ammonia and GCA for toluene. Also, the SWA and GCA methods were compared with different concentration levels. In the case of ammonia exposure (5, 10 and 25%), there was no difference by concentration levels, and the concentration in the outlet gradually increased, with pH change from acid to base. In the case of toluene exposure (50, 75 and 100%), the outlet concentration was higher relative to the exposure concentration in the initial 10 min, but the outlet concentration was remained steady after 10 min. CONCLUSION: The newly improved mobile scrubber was also effective in removing VOCs through adsorption techniques (activated carbon, activated carbon fiber, carbon mat filter etc.), as well as removing acid-base harmful chemicals by neutralization reaction.

The Development of Korean Traditional Wine Using the Fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten - I. Characteristics of Mashes and Sojues - (손바닥 선인장 열매를 이용한 전통주 개발 - I. 전통주 제조기법을 이용한 발효주 및 증류주의 특성 -)

  • Bae, In-Young;Yoon, Eun-Ju;Woo, Jeong-Min;Kim, Joo-Shin;Yang, Cha-Bum;Lee, Hyeon-Gyu
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.11-17
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    • 2002
  • Fermentation characteristics with/without nitrogen source and quality of the fruit distillate of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten were investigated during the manufacturing process of a Korean traditional liquor. As the fermentation period increased, acidity, brix degree, and alcohol concentration increased, whereas pH and contents of reducing sugar decreased. Acidity, pH, and brix degree were higher, whereas the content of reducing sugar lower, in the nitrogen source-added distillate than in the distillate without nitrogen source. The growth of yeast increased, while that of bacteria decreased; this trend was more prominent with the addition of a nitrogen source. Sojues, distilled from two types of mashes and diluted with $H_2O$ and tails of distillate into 22% alcohol concentration, showed pH $3.7{\sim}4.0$, acidity $0.02{\sim}0.10$, and $5.4{\sim}6.1$ $^{\circ}Brix$. Analysis through GC using direct injection methods revealed common volatile flavor compounds in sojues, including acetaldehyde, acetyl acetone, acetic acid ethyl ester, ethyl alcohol, 2-propyl alcohol, acetone, n-propyl alcohol, butanoic acid methyl ester, 2-phenyl ethanol, thymol, acetic acid phenyl ester, and vanillic aldehyde. As revealed through the sensory evaluation, no significant difference (p>0.05) in overall acceptability was shown among four experimental groups, while color and flavor showed significant differences(p<0.05).

Evaluation of antioxidant properties and oxidative stability of oregano seed solvent fraction (추출용매에 따른 오레가노 종자 분획물의 항산화 및 유지산화안정성 평가)

  • Lee, Hyun-Jong;Kim, Min-Ah;Hong, Sungsil;Kim, Mi-Ja
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.12-18
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    • 2021
  • The in vitro antioxidant activity of oregano seed fractions, fractionizing with 80% ethanol, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water, was evaluated, and their effects on edible oils were determined in corn oil at 180℃. The ethyl acetate fraction had the highest radical-scavenging activity. The ferric reducing antioxidant power activity and total phenol content of the ethyl acetate fraction were determined as 6,130 µmol ascorbic acid equivalents/g extract and 770 µmol tannic acid equivalents/g extract, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of the other fractions (p<0.05). Primary and secondary oxidation products in corn oil added with the ethyl acetate fraction of oregano seed significantly decreased by 1.5 and 1.26 times, respectively, compared with those in the control groups. The major volatile ingredients in the ethyl acetate fraction of oregano seeds were determined to be carvacrol, thymoquinone, and 3-cyclopentylcyl-cyclopentan-1-one. Ethyl acetate is a suitable solvent for extracting antioxidant compounds from oregano seeds and can be used as a natural antioxidant.