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Stable Macro-aggregate in Wet Sieving and Soil Properties (습식체별에 안정한 대입단과 토양특성과의 관계)

  • Han, Kyung-Hwa;Cho, Hyun-Jun;Lee, Hyub-Sung;Oh, Dong-Shig;Kim, Lee-Yul
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.255-261
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    • 2007
  • Soil aggregates, resulting from physico-chemical and biological interactions, are important to understand carbon dynamics and material transport in soils. The objective of this study is to investigate stable macro-aggregate (> 0.25mm diameter) in wet sieving (SM) and their relation to soil properties in 15 sites. The clay contents of soils were ranged from 1% to 33%, and their land uses included bare and cultivated lands of annual upland crops, orchard, and grass. Undisturbed 3 inch cores with five replicates were sampled at topsoil (i.e., 0- to 10-cm depth), for analyzing SM and physico-chemical properties, after in situ measurement of air permeability. SM of sandy soils, with clay content less than 2%, was observed as 0%. Except the sandy soils, SM of soils mainly depended on land uses, showing 27%~35% in soils with annual plants such as vegetable and corn, 51% in orchard, and 75% in grass. This sequence of SM is probably due to the different strength of soil disturbance like tillage with different land uses. SM had significant correlation with cation exchange capacity, organic matter content, sand, clay, silt, bulk density, and exchangeable potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg), whereas fluctuating properties with fertilization such as pH, EC, and water soluble phosphorus weren't significantly correlated to the SM. Particularly, exchangeable calcium (Ca) had significant relation with SM, only except soils with oversaturating Ca. This study, therefore, suggested that SM could perceive different land uses and the change of soil properties in soils, necessarily considering soil textures and Ca over-saturation.

The Relationship between the Refractive Power and Nutrient Intake of the Growth Period in Accordance with the Income (소득에 따른 성장기 영양소 섭취와 굴절력과의 관계)

  • Ye, Ki-Hun;Lee, Wan-Seok
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.213-229
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The Nutrient intake during the growth period is a critical factor for the development of the vision. In this study, we have analyzed the nutrient that has a correlation with the decrease of induced visual impairment. In addition, we investigated visual acuity and correlation of the nutrient in the higher-income youth and low-income youth. Methods: We used the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 document. The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey didn't show the clear standard of carbohydrates and fats, so we used the data from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety standards with each 330 g, 51 g. In order to compare the correlation of nutrients and refraction, Nutrients has been classified macronutrients(energy, dietary fiber, protein, carbohydrate, fat), fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A), water-soluble vitamins (vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin), trace minerals (iron), minerals (calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium) and water. Results: We investigated the correlation between refraction and nutrients on average about 328 subjects belonging to the high-income group. The fat intake was $54.21{\pm}32.60$ g, and it was about 2~10 times less than the recommended daily intake (112-540 g). Refractive power and fat intake showed a statistically significant correlation (O.D:p=0.033, O.S:p=0.029). We investigated the correlation between refraction and nutrients on average about 309 subjects belonging to the lowincome group. The phosphorus showed higher ingested by the $1118.75{\pm}501.98$ mg, and the sodium showed intake more than three times recommended intake by the $3705.24{\pm}2089.42$ mg. In addition, unlike other macro mineral it showed that was a correlation on the refraction by the 0.031. Conclusions: A broad variety of taking nutrition and good eating habits at the time of growth seems to have an effects to the good growth and vision and the senescence inhibition of vision.ave an effect to the good growth, the good vision and the senescence inhibition of vision.

Effect of Combined Application of Bottom Ash and Compost on Heavy Metal Concentration and Enzyme Activities in Upland Soil (밭 토양에서 바닥재와 축분퇴비의 혼합시용이 토양의 중금속 함량 및 효소활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yong Gyun;Lim, Woo Sup;Hong, Chang Oh;Kim, Pil Joo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.262-270
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND: Coal combustion bottom ash(BA) has high carbon and calcium content, and alkaline pH, which might improve nutrient cycling in soil related to microbial enzyme activities as it is used as soil amendment. However, it contains heavy metals such as copper(Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc(Zn), which could cause heavy metals accumulation in soil. Compost might play a role that stabilize BA. The objective of this study was to evaluate effect of combined application of BA and compost as soil amendment on heavy metals concentration, enzyme activities, chemical properties, and crop yield in upland soil. METHODS AND RESULTS: BA was applied at the rate of 0, 20, 40, and 80 Mg/ha under different rate of compost application (0 and 30 Mg/ha) in radish (Raphanus sativus var) field. Combined application of BA and compost more improved chemical properties such as pH, EC, OM, total nitrogen, available phosphate, and exchangeable cations of soil than single application of BA. Water soluble Mn and Zn concentration in soil significantly decreased with increasing application rate of BA. Decrease in those metals concentration was accelerated with combined application of BA and compost. Urease and dehydrogenase activities significantly increased with increasing application rate of BA. Phosphotase activities were not affected with single application of BA but increased with combined application of BA and compost. Radish yield was not affected by application rate of BA. CONCLUSION: From the above results, combined application of BA and compost could be used as soil amendment to improve chemical properties and enzyme activities of soil without increase in heavy metal concentration and decrease in crop yield in upland soil.

Evaluate the Suitability of MC3T3 Cells to Antibacterial Ag-30CaO·70SiO2 Gel (항균성 Ag-30CaO·70SiO2 Gel의 MC3T3 세포적합성에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Geum-Jae;Ryu, Jae-Kyung;An, Eung-Mo;Kim, Yun-Jong;Kim, Taik-Nam;Noh, In-Sup;Cho, Sung-Beck
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.24 no.12
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    • pp.671-676
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    • 2014
  • It is known that bones get damaged by accidents and aging. Since the discovery of Bioglass, various kinds of ceramics have been also found to bond to living bone; some of these ceramics are already being clinically used as bone-repairing materials. In the present study, antibacterial calcium silicate gel ($Ag-30CaO{\cdot}70SiO_2$ gel) was prepared by sol-gel method in order to control the microstructure, which is related to the dissolution rate and induction period of apatite formation in body environment. In addition, biological $Ag-30CaO{\cdot}70SiO_2$ is tested. This was done to impart antimicrobial activity to the $30CaO{\cdot}70SiO_2$. Ag ion was added during sol-gel synthesis to replace the $H_2O$ added during the making of the $30CaO{\cdot}70SiO_2$ gel, which has silver solutions of various concentration. After the sol-gel process, 1N-$HNO_3$ solution was used to wash the gel when synthesizing the gel, in order to maintain the porous structure and remove PEG, water soluble polymers. Then, the apatite forming ability of the sol-gel derived CaO-$SiO_2$ gels was investigated using simulated body fluid (SBF), which had almost the same ion concentration as that of human blood plasma. The gels were analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM observation, XRD, and fluorescent microscopy. The apatite was successfully created even after washing the gel; apatite is present in an amorphous state, and was found to affect the concentration of the Ag ion in cells in MC3T3 live & dead assay results. From these results, it is suggested that a good material that can be used to repair defects of nature bone is $Ag-30CaO{\cdot}70SiO_2$ gel.

Increased Available Phosphate by Shell Meal Fertilizer Application in Upland Soil (밭 토양에서 패화석비료 시용에 따른 유효인산의 증대)

  • Lee, Chang-Hoon;Lee, Ju-Young;Ha, Byung-Hyun;Kim, Pil-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.52-57
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    • 2005
  • Previous studies showed that shell meal fertilizer from the oyster farming industry could be a potential inorganic soil amendment to increase Chinese cabbage productivity and to restore the soil nutrient balance in upland soil (Lee et al., 2004). Herein, shell meal fertilizer was applied at rates of 0, 4, 8, 12, and $16Mg\;ha^{-1}$ to upland soil (Pyeontaeg series, Fine silty, Typic Endoaquepts) for Chinese cabbage cultivation. We found available phosphate increased significantly with shell meal fertilizer application, due to high content of phosphate ($1.5g\;P_2O_5\;kg^{-1}$) in the applied shell meal fertilizer. In addition, high pH of shell meal fertilizer contributed to increase available phosphate content by neutralization of acidic soil. Total and residual P contents increased significantly with increasing shell meal fertilizer application, but we could not find any tendency in organic and inorganic P fraction. Of extractable P fraction, water-soluble phosphorus (W-P) and calcium-bound P (Ca-P) contents increased significantly with increasing application level. By contrast, aluminum and iron-bound P (Al-P and Fe-P) decreased slightly with shell meal application. The present experiment indicated that shell meal fertilizer had a positive benefit on increasing available phosphate content in arable soil. And so the increased available phosphate by shell meal fertilizer may decrease phosphate application level and then reduce phosphorus loss in arable soil.

Food Components and Sensual Characterization of Commercial Plain-dried Silver-stripe Round Herring (시판 소건 샛줄멸의 식품성분 및 관능 특성)

  • Kim, Hyung-Jun;Yoon, Min-Seok;Park, Yong-Seok;Ha, Jin-Hwan;Jung, In-Kwon;Heu, Min-Soo;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.11
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    • pp.1457-1464
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    • 2008
  • For the effective use of under-utilized resources, silver-stripe round herring (SSRH), the plain-dried SSRH was investigated and compared with boiled-dried SSRH and boiled-dried anchovy on the food component and sensual characterization. Moisture content and salinity of the plain-dried SSRH were 31.9% and 7.6%, respectively. Moisture content of the plain-dried SSRH was higher, while the salinity was lower than those of boiled-dried SSRH and anchovy. According to the results of peroxide value, fatty acid composition, Hunter b value, and browning index, the rancidity was higher in plain-dried SSRH than in boiled-dried SSRH and anchovy. When compared to the boiled-dried SSRH and anchovy, the plain-dried SSRH was higher in calcium and phosphorus contents, while lower in total content of amino acid. According to the results of hot-water soluble-N, trichloroacetic acid-N, free amino acid, and taste value, the taste of plain-dried SSRH was superior to those of the boiled-dried SSRH and anchovy. The results of chemical components and sensory evaluation indicated that the plained-dried SSRH could be substituted for boiled-dried anchovy classified into special grade, if fish odor of SSRH can be improved.

Nutrient Composition and Physicochemical Properties of Korean Taro Flours According to Cultivars (품종별 국내산 토란 분말의 영양성분 및 이화학적 특성)

  • Moon, Ji-Hye;Kim, Ro-Sa;Choi, Hee-Don;Kim, Yoon-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.613-619
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    • 2010
  • Three varieties of taro flours (Altoran, Josaengjong, and Jaeraejong) were analyzed to evaluate their nutrient composition and physicochemical properties. Moisture contents of the three taro cultivars varied from 5.74-10.30%. Among the three cultivars, Altoran flour had higher protein and fat contents than other cultivars. There were 17 kinds of amino acids in the three taro flours. The major fatty acids in the three taro flours were linoleic acid (46.5-51.4%), palmitic acid (21.7-25.8%), and oleic acid (12.3-18.7%), and two thirds of the total fatty acids were unsaturated fatty acids. Potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and calcium were the most plentiful minerals in the three taro flours, and the free sugars were glucose, fructose, and sucrose. The total dietary fiber contents of the three taro flours ranged from 12.97 to 17.60%. From these results, Altoran contained a high level of dietary fiber, minerals, essential amino acids, and free sugars. Jaeraejong showed the highest water absorption index. The water soluble index of Altoran was higher than that of the other cultivars. From the differential scanning calorimeter results, the gelatinization temperatures of the three taro flours were $84.98-89.91^{\circ}C$. The pasting temperature of the three taro flours was from 46.77 to $49.30^{\circ}C$ by rapid visco-analyzer. Among these varieties, Josaengjong had the highest peak viscosity and final viscosity, whereas Altoran had the lowest. These taro cultivars are expected to be potential material for application in taro processed foods, due to their gelatination and pasting properties.

Dietary Life Status of Korean Prisoners' and the Background during the Period of Japanese Ruling (일제하(日帝下)(1920년대) 조선인수형인(朝鮮人受刑人)의 식생활상황(食生活狀況)과 그 배경(背景))

  • Kim, Chon-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.56-68
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    • 2003
  • The objects of this study are to find out (1) real situation of the food supply in prison under Imperial Government of Japan more cleary (historical meaning) and (2) which might help in understanding wrong present food consumption patterns in Korea which causes environmental as well as health problems. It is generally known that the length of the Japanese occupation for Korea is 36 years. However, it is concluded in this study that it was longer (70 years ; from 1875 to 1945 from when Japanese Army attacked and occupied Yungjongdo and Kanghwado island to e time when they were defeated on World War II.) Korea was annexed by Japan in 1910 then the Imperial Government of Japan dismissed the Korea Army, controlled the Office of Justice and the management of prison by force. Since then about 50% of all land was fell into Japanese Government ownership and 80% of Korean farmers became as tenant. After this change, Korea farmers were forced to pay extremely high rent (up to 80% of its harvest). Forced immigration, low price procurement of grain by Japanese government up to more than 30%of their production, was practiced. Accordingly, the food situation of Korean farmers became miserable, which may caused more violations of Imperial Japanese Law. Malnutrition, epidemic diseases, mortality rate of infants soared and average life expectancy shortened to 20-30 years old. This was the period of World Economic Crises and Food Crises in Japan. It was said then that if one Japanese comes to Korea then 200 Koreans will starved to death. Meanwhile, Proconsul Bureau of Chosun requested to the Department of Medicine, the Imperial University of Kyungsung to survey food supply situation of Koreans in prison throughout Korea. Objectives of the survey then was not only to find out scientifically whether it is agreeable in maintaining prisoner's health and also find out the possibility to save food during food crisis. Survey was started from 1923 and ended in 1945, and it focussed on prisoners in the Seodaemoon Prison. This report is the outcome of the first survey. They concluded that the food supplied was nutritionally (had) no problem, in compare with those of workers in the factory, students in the dormitory in Japan and with those of prisoners in Taiwan, France and Germany. Amount of grain supplied were different according to their work lord and was divided into 9 different levels. Total grain was consisted of 50% millet, 30% soybean and 20% indica rice(variety). However, there were no difference in the amount of supply of side dishes between work groups. For the highest working group, 3280g of boiled grain per day was supplied to make stomach full but as a side dishes, salty fermented bean paste, fermented fish and salty soups, etc. was supplied. Deficiency of animal protein were observed, however, high intake of soybean may possibly caused animal protein deficiency problem. On the contrary, the intake of water soluble vitamins were insufficient but the level of calcium and iron intake seems to be sufficient, however, imbalance of intake of nutrition may caused low absorbtion rate which might caused malnutrition. High intake of dietary fiber and low intake of cholesterol may possibly prohibited them from so called modem disease but may caused the defect in disease resistancy againist epidemics and other traditional disease. Over intake of salt(20-30g per day) was observed. Surveyors who attended in this survey, mentioned that the amount of food intake may nutritionally be sufficient enough but the quality of food(and possibly, the taste of food) were like that of animal feed. For the officials who received this report might consider that considering the war situation and food crisis, the supply situation of food in the prison may considered to be good enough(because they are not starving). But as a Korean who studied this report, one feel extremely pity about those situation because (situation of) those period were very harsh under the Imperial Law and keeping the Law by Koreans were almost impossible, therefore, about one third adult violated the Law and were put into jail. And they were treated like animals.

Soil Characteristic of Plow and Compaction Layer in Fluvio-marine Deposit Paddy Soil (하해혼성 충적층 논토양 작토층과 경반층의 토양특성)

  • Yang, Chang-Hyu;Kim, Taek-Kyum;Ryu, Jin-Hee;Kim, Jae-Duk;Jung, Kwang-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.364-370
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to survey, analyze on the compaction layer and the plow layer at Jeonbug and Jisan series paddy soil, which is the representative soil in fluvio-marine and local alluvium, respectively. The depths of surface soil were 12.6 and 12.7 cm in Jeonbug and Jisan series, respectively. A plowing depth was 10.5 cm. The properties of compaction layer in two soil series were as follows. The hardness were $14.7kg\;cm^{-2}(25.3mm)$ and $8.7kg\;cm^{-2}(22.1mm)$ in Jeonbug and Jisan series, respectively. The thickness were 22.3 cm and 17.8 cm in Jeonbug and Jisan series, respectively. The depth of soil compaction, which means depth from surface, were 15 and 20 cm in Jeonbug and Jisan series, respectively. The relationship between the hardness of compaction layer and the depth of surface soil showed negative correlation, however relationship between the hardness and the thickness of compaction layer showed positive correlation. Soil temperature was lower in compaction layer than in plow layer. This temperature differences between compaction layer and plow layer were from 1.0 to $2.5^{\circ}C$ in Jeonbug series and from 0.7 to 2.1 in Jisan series. The soil physical properties of compaction layer were higher in bulk density and solid phase and lower in porosity and gaseous phase than those of plow layer in all soil series. The soil chemical properties of compaction layer were higher in pH, content of available silicate, exchangeable calcium and magnesium but lower in total nitrogen, content of organic matter and available phosphate than those of plow layer in all soil series. Cation exchangeable capacity and content of exchangeable potassium were similar between compaction layer and plow layer in Jeonbug series, however, in Jisan series these were lower in compaction layer than in plow layer. Elution amount of inorganic nitrogen were lower in compaction layer than in plow layer in all soil series. The content of soluble Fe and Mn were plenty in compaction layer compared with plow layer and these tendency was apparent in Jeonbug series. The water depth decrease were fast until the latter part of June, and were slow as $1{\sim}3mm\;day^{-1}$ for July and August, and were fast again from september. Rice roots distributions as each soil series and tillage method were 25 cm at rotary plowing in Jeonbug series, 30 cm at deep plowing in Jeonbug series, and 20 cm at tillage in Jisan series. Dry weight per m2 at heading stage were much in order of deep plowing in Jeonbug series, rotary plowing in Jeonbug series, and tillage in Jisan series.

Controlling Effect of Agricultural Organic Materials on Phytophthora Blight and Anthracnose in Red Pepper (고추 역병과 탄저병에 대한 친환경유기농자재의 방제 효과)

  • Park, Se-Jung;Kim, Ga-Hye;Kim, A-Hyeong;Lee, Ho-Taek;Gwon, Hyeon-Wook;Kim, Joo-Hyeng;Lee, Kyeong-Hee;Kim, Heung-Tae
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2012
  • A total of 20 agricultural organic materials including inorganic compounds, plant oils and plant extracts were used in the study for assessing the control efficacy on pepper diseases. Among inorganic compounds, only copper hydroxide showed inhibitory effect on both Phytophthora capsici causing Phytophthora blight and Colletotrichum acutatum causing anthracnose. Phosphorous acid inhibited the growth of P. capsici on PDA, and Sulfur/quicklime had it on that of C. acutatum. Plant essential oil, rosemary oil, and rapeseed oil among plant oils and plant extract of Japanese apricot/ginkgo nut inhibited the mycelial growth of the two pathogens. In the screening using pepper plant seedlings, the control efficacy on Phytophthora blight in 6-leaf stage of seedling was superior to that in 4-leaf stage of seedling. A protective effect on Phytophthora blight was displayed by copper hydroxide, sulfur/quicklime, water soluble calcium, phosphorous acid, plant essential oil, and cloves extract. When C. acutatum was inoculated by the non-wound method, copper hydroxide and rapeseed oil showed excellent protective activities with control values of 91.3% and 82.6%, respectively. However, copper hydroxide did not show any activity, when C. acutatum was inoculated after wounding pepper fruits. All organic materials never showed the curative effect on Phytophthora blight and anthracnose in pepper seedling assay and fruit assay.