• Title, Summary, Keyword: water-soluble calcium

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Effect of 1-MCP and High $pCO_2$ Treatment on the Firmness and Pectin Changes in Peach(Prunus persica) Fruit During Shelf-life (1-Methylcyclopropene(1-MCP) 및 $CO_2$ 처리가 복숭아(Prunus persica) 과실의 경도와 세포벽 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Myun-Surn;Min, Jeong-Ho;Chun, Jong-Pil;Kim, Jin-Guk;Lee, Eun-Mo;Lee, Ji-Yong;Hwang, Yong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.209-216
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    • 2010
  • In order to understand the effects of a single or combined treatments of 1-MCP($1{\mu}L/L$) and $CO_2$(100%) on the firmness of melting type peach fruit(cv. Chunjungdo), fruit were harvested at commercial maturity and examined physiological changes including flesh firmness during 10 days of shelf-life. Firmness loss of fruit was delayed by both single and combined treatments of 1-MCP and $CO_2$. The treatment of 1-MCP was more effective than $CO_2$ treatment but no additive effective on firmness retention was found in the combined treatment. The upsurge of ethylene evolution occurred 5 days of shelf-life in air treated control but ethylene evolution gradually increased in fruit treated by 1-MCP and 1-MCP+$CO_2$. The suppression of ethylene evolution seemed stronger in $CO_2$ treatment. The respiration of fruit significantly inhibited up to 10 days except control where climacteric increase of respiration was found at 10 days of shelf-life. A molecular shift of pectic polymers(an increase of chelator soluble pectins and decrease of water soluble pectins) was induced by both 1-MCP and $CO_2$ treatments. An increase of water soluble pectins was coincident with firmness loss. The delay of firmness loss seemed to be associated with the migration of calcium to wall matrix, especially pectins, resulting in the increase of wall bound calcium. The polygalacturonase activity was significantly reduced by 1-MCP alone 1 day after treatment and increased to similar level of activity 5 days after treatment compared to other treatment except air treated control whereas pectin methylesterase activity seemed not to be affected by both 1-MCP and $CO_2$ treatments. Thus, the molecular shift of pectic polymers appeared not to be related with pectin methylesterase. Further study is required to clarify the softening mechanism associated with molecular shift of pectic polymers and the inter- or intra-cellular movement of calcium ions induced by postharvest treatments of 1-MCP and $CO_2$.

Effect of Dietary Fat-soluble Vitamins on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Growing Pigs

  • Lohakare, J.D.;Lee, S.H.;Chae, B.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.563-567
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    • 2006
  • Two experiments were conducted to compare the effect of various vitamins on performance and digestibility in growing pigs. In experiment 1, a total of 54 pigs ($L{\times}Y{\times}D$, $42.73{\pm}2.40kg$) were assigned to three treatments in a randomized complete block design with three replicates (6 pigs/pen) for 40 days. The three dietary treatments were: 100% fat-soluble vitamins (FSV) and water-soluble vitamins (WSV); 150% FSV and 100% WSV of NRC (1998); and 100% FSV and 150% WSV of NRC (1998). In experiment 2, a total of 180 pigs ($L{\times}Y{\times}D$, $28.20{\pm}3.05 kg$) were assigned to four treatments in a completely randomized design with three replicates for four weeks (15 pigs/pen). The four dietary treatments were, 150% vitamin A and 100% other vitamins, 150% vitamin D and 100% other vitamins, 150% vitamin E and 100% other vitamins, and 150% vitamin K and 100% other vitamins. In experiment 1, there were significant differences in growth performance and digestibility of nutrients among the treatments. The ADG, ADFI and FCR of pigs fed 150% FSV diet were better (p<0.05) than those fed the control diet. However, there were no differences (p>0.05) in ADG, ADFI and FCR between pigs fed the control and 150% WSV diets. Digestibilities of dry matter, gross energy and calcium were improved in 150% FSV treatment group compared with control (p<0.05). However, the improvement was similar when compared with 150% WSV except for Ca. In experiment 2, there were no differences (p>0.05) in ADG, ADFI and FCR and nutrient digestibility between the fat-soluble vitamin treatments when fed at the 150% level. In conclusion, growing pigs were more responsive to additional fat-soluble vitamin supplements over the requirements suggested by NRC (1998) than to water-soluble vitamin supplements as measured by growth performance and digestibility of nutrients.

Factors Affecting on Protein Stability of Mixed Cow and Soy Milk (콩우유와 우유 혼합유의 단백질 안정성에 미치는 영향인자)

  • 정남용;김우정
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.345-352
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    • 1994
  • High protein beverage of cow-soy milk was prepared by mixing the soymilk and commercial homogenized cow milk in the various ratios. Effect of heat treatment, pH and addition of calcium and sucrose was studied on the water-soluble nitrogen of cow-soy milk The heat-treated soymilk at 10$0^{\circ}C$ were centrifuged at the range of 830~29,900xg for 30 min and 11,200xg was found to be proper for determination of the degree of protein denaturation by centrifugal method. When soymilk was heated at 70~10$0^{\circ}C$ for 30~240 min, soluble nitrogen (QA SN) in supernatant of protein was decreased to 78.0~56.8% due to protein denaturation. Most of heat denaturation of protein was found to be occurred during Initial heating 10$0^{\circ}C$ for all mixed cow-soy milk. The sedimentation of SN was maximum at pH 4.0 In the range of pH 3~8. Addition of sucrose affected little on oASN while calcium addition reduced %SN significantly to approx. 55% for soymilk(100%). The effect of Ca was less as the ratio of cow milk increased.

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Effective Components and Nitrite Scavenging Ability of Root and Leaves a Angelica gigas Nakai (당귀와 승검초의 기능성 성분과 아질산염 소거능)

  • Joung, Sun-Woo;Kim, Hyang-Sook
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.957-965
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    • 2006
  • This research was conducted to examine the usability of Dangui (Angelica gigas Nakai, Root) and Seungumcho (Angelica gigas Nakai, Leaf) as functional food in aspects of their functional components and nitrite scavenging ability. Analysis of proximate composition showed that Dangui contains more moisture, crude lipid and crude protein than Seungumcho. On the other hand, Seungumcho contains more than twice mont of crude ash and crude fiber than Dangui. Dangui showed higher contents in phosphorus, iron, magnesium, and Seungumcho showed higher contents in copper, calcium, sodium, potassium compare to each other. Substances such as calcium, magnesium and iron that showed high contents in Dangui and Seungumcho are the most important inorganic substances. Total dietary fiber(TDF) of Dangui, sum of IDF and SDF, was 24.2%, and Seungumcho showed 28.18%. vitamin C contents of a 29.690.33 mg/100g appeared only in Seunggumcho. Total phenol contents of Dangui was 0.100${\pm}$002% and that of Seungumcho 0.0900${\pm}$008%. Nnitrite Scavenging ability of both water soluble and methanol soluble extracts were more than 90% at pH 1.2, and it decreased as pH level adjusted to pH 4.2, pH and 6.0.

Seasonal Variations of Chemical Composition of the Estuary Water in Guang Yang Inlet from Mar. 1961 to Feb. 1962 (蟾津江 河口 干潟地 水質의 年間變化)

  • Won, Chong-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.176-197
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    • 1962
  • Seasonal variations of chemical constituents of estuarine water at a definite station of the tidal flat in Guang Yang inlet have been determined for two days a month. The range and mean of the annual variations are as follows:Tidal variations through a year are as follows:1. Although the tidal value of pH is almost constant during one tidal cycle, it raises abruptly 0.1-0.2 intervals of pH value during the first period of flood.2. The lower values of chlorinity, magnesium and calcium contents have been determined the nearer the slack after ebb, and slightly higher during the first period of flood tide than the last of ebb. The tidal change of calcium contents is more remarkable than of magnesium.3. The higher per cent saturation values of dissolved oxygen, sometimes higher than 100 per cent, re determined the nearer the slack after ebb.4. The total nitrogen contents, relatively poor, varies accidentally during one tidal cycle, whereas phosphate-P and silicate-Si are rich at the slack after ebb and increase proportionally to the mixing percentage of fresh water. The average values, 52.2 and 18.5 of Si/P and N/P are greater than of the normal.5. The acid soluble iron contents, lower in winter than in summer, is also varies accidentally during one tidal cycle and the magnitude of the variation is large.6. The chemical composition considered from the value of Ca/Cl or Mg/Cl of estuarine water varies according to the chlorinity even at the high chlorinity of 18-19%.

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Effects of Calcium Gluconate, a Water Soluble Calcium Salt on the Collagen-Induced DBA/1J Mice Rheumatoid Arthritis

  • Sohn, Ki Cheul;Kang, Su Jin;Kim, Joo Wan;Kim, Ki Young;Ku, Sae Kwang;Lee, Young Joon
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.290-298
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    • 2013
  • This study examined the effects of calcium (Ca) gluconate on collagen-induced DBA mouse rheumatoid arthritis (CIA). A single daily dose of 200, 100 or 50 mg/kg Ca gluconate was administered orally to male DBA/1J mice for 40 days after initial collagen immunization. To ascertain the effects administering the collagen booster, CIA-related features (including body weight, poly-arthritis, knee and paw thickness, and paw weight increase) were measured from histopathological changes in the spleen, left popliteal lymph node, third digit and the knee joint regions. CIA-related bone and cartilage damage improved significantly in the Ca gluconate-administered CIA mice. Additionally, myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in the paw were reduced in Ca gluconate-treated CIA mice compared to CIA control groups. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of oxidative stress, decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the Ca gluconate group. Finally, the production of IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$, involved in rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis, were suppressed by treatment with Ca gluconate. Taken together, these results suggest that Ca gluconate is a promising candidate anti-rheumatoid arthritis agent, exerting anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and immunomodulatory effects in CIA mice.

Effect of Particle Size Distribution of Sand on Compressive Strength of Calcium Silicate Brick (고압벽돌의 강도와 모래입도에 관한 연구)

  • 김병무;최명식;이경희
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.193-198
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    • 1978
  • Test-bricks were prepared from an artifically graded Ham Kang sand and a commercial CaO and autoclaved for 6 hours at $16 kg/cm^2$ pressure $(203^{\circ}C)$. Bricks were tested for compressive strength, free lime, saluble silica and amount of water absorption. Physical properties of bricks were very much depended on the size distribution of sand particle and the amount of soluble silica in bricks.

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PERIAPICAL TISSUE REACTION AND ROOT RESORPTION FOLLOWING REPLANTATION WITH DIFFERENT CALCIUM HYDROXIDE PASTES IN RAT (치아재식술 시 근관충전재로 사용된 수산화칼슘 제재의 치근단 조직 반응 및 치근 흡수의 평가)

  • 송상채;이승종;정일영;이찬영;금기연
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.111-120
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    • 2001
  • Calcium hydroxide pastes is widely used in conventional endodontics. Along with the expanded clinical use of calcium hydroxide, literatures suggest mixing calcium hydroxide with other substance. Among added substances the vehicle plays the most importance role in the overall process because it is directly related with the velocity of ionic dissociation of $Ca^{2+}$ and OH ion. In this study, we evalutated and compared periapical tissue response and root resorption after canal was filled with mixture of saline and calcium hydroxide(Junsei Chemical Co.. Japan) as a aqueous vehicle, Metapaste(Meta Co., Korea) as a viscous vehicle paste, Vitapex(Neo Dental, Japan) as a oily vehicle paste and IRM(Caulk Dentsply, USA) in replantation of rat molar. A total of 31 maxillary first molars of Sprague-Dawley female rats, 30 days old were used. The upper 1st molar was extracted and the mesiobuccal canal was filled with mixture of saline and calcium hydroxide, Metapaste, Vitapex. IRM and then replanted. Rats were sacrificed 3 weeks after replantation. the maxillae were removed. section of 4 micron were cut and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Apical tissue response were observed under light microscope. The results were as follows: 1. Saline mixing group and Metapaste group were significant different in fibrous capsule width compared to Vitapex group and IRM group(P<0.05). 2. Saline mixing group. Metapaste group. Vitapex group and IRM group did not prevent root resorption and there were no statistical difference. 3. In saline mixing group and Metapaste group. loss of pastes were observed in all samples. From the results of our study. we observed loss of pastes in saline mixing group and Metapaste group because of water soluble property and assumed it was related to inflammation in apical area and sealing ability of material. So, we should study and develop calcium hydroxide vehicle which is easily removed and more stable and because of only 3 weeks observation we need more evaluation in long period.

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Suitability of Coal Fly Ash and Incineration Ashes as Raw Materials for Zeolite Synthesis

  • Murayama, NorihiHo;Yamakawa, Yousuke;Ogawa, Kazuo;Takami, Yuko;Yamamoto, Hideki;Shibata, Junji
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.616-620
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    • 2001
  • The objectives of this study are to investigate the suitability of various coal fly ashes and incineration ashes for zeolite synthesis. Zeolite P and hydroxysodalite are produced from coal fly ash and paper sludge incineration ash. When soluble and acid-soluble materials in incineration fly ash are removed by the water washing or acid washing before hydrothermal synthesis, hydroxysodalite can be produced. The factors to make solid-liquid separation difficult are the calcium component and the unburned carbon in ash.

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The effect of organic matter on the removal of phosphorus through precipitation as struvite and calcium phosphate in synthetic dairy wastewater

  • Aleta, Prince;Parikh, Sanjai J.;Silchuk, Amy P.;Scow, Kate M.;Park, Minseung;Kim, Sungpyo
    • Membrane Water Treatment
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.163-172
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    • 2018
  • This study investigated the effect of organic matter on the precipitation of struvite and calcium phosphate for phosphorus recovery from synthetic dairy wastewater. Batch precipitation experiments were performed to precipitate phosphorus from solutions containing $PO_4{^{3-}}$ and $NH_4{^+}$ by the addition of $Mg^{2+}$ and $Ca^{2+}$, separately, at varying pH, Mg/P and Ca/P molar ratios, and organic matter concentrations. Soluble total organic solids exhibited more inhibition to precipitation due to potential interaction with other dissolved ionic species involved in phosphorus precipitation. Xylan with low total acidity only exhibited significant inhibition at very high concentrations in synthetic wastewater (at up to 100 g/L). No significant inhibition was observed for Mg and Ca precipitation at relatively lower concentrations (at up to 1.2 g/L). MINTEQ simulations show that dissolved organic matter (DOM) as humic substances (HS) can cause significant inhibition even at relatively low concentrations of 0.165 g/L fulvic acid. However, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis suggested that xylan altered the crystal structure of both precipitates and had caused the formation of smaller sized struvite crystals with slightly rougher surfaces This could be due to xylan molecules adhering on the surface of the crystal potentially blocking active sites and limit further crystal growth. Smaller particle sizes will have negative practical impact because of poorer settleability.