• Title, Summary, Keyword: water-soluble calcium

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Effects of short-term treatment of high pressure CO2 on the changes in fruit quality during the storage of 'Maehyang' strawberries (수확 후 고농도 CO2 단기처리가 '매향' 딸기의 저장에 미치는 영향)

  • Ahn, Sun-Eun;Wang, Mao-Hua;Lee, Ah-Youn;Hwang, Yong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2014
  • This experiment was conducted to examine the effects of a short-term treatment of high pressure $CO_2$ on shelf-life of strawberry fruit. A short-term treatment (12 hr) of 100% $CO_2$ resulted in the increase of fruit firmness up to 71.9% compared to that at harvest. The firmness of $CO_2$ treated fruit remained a significantly higher than that of control (air) up to 15 days. The alteration of pectic polymers was observed by $CO_2$ treatment such as an increase of EDTA soluble pectins and decrease of water soluble ones. The $CO_2$ treatment resulted in the increase of total amount of wall bound calcium. Pectate lyase activity, an important agent of strawberry fruit softening, was also significantly reduced by $CO_2$ treatment. Contents of soluble solids and acids of $CO_2$ treated fruit were higher than those of control fruit. Short-term treatment of high pressure $CO_2$ affected shelf-life through firmness increase whereas the visual quality and decay incidence of strawberry fruit were not affected.

Browning and Pungent Taste Reduction Techniques in Onion Extract (양파추출물의 갈변 및 매운맛 억제기술)

  • Kim, Hee Sun;Kim, Myung Hwan
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.360-364
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    • 2009
  • The onion extractions of MIX treatment (5% $\beta$ cyclodextrin+1% calcium chloride+1% soluble starch mixture solution) using hot water (100${^{\circ}C}$ and 80${^{\circ}C}$) and ultrasonic treatment (25${^{\circ}C}$) incresed L values and decreased a and b values apart from the extraction methods. Extent of the browning reaction as caused by the MIX treatment (0.093) following 100${^{\circ}C}$ water extraction resulted in as low as 31% O.D. level, as compared to the control(0.296). Analysis of the pyruvic acid showed that the control had higher content of pyruric acid than MIX-treated samples. The MIX treatment had lower intensities and higher preferences of browning color and pungency taste compared to the control. The total and coliform microbial counts increased continuously during storage period, while the MIX treatment reduced the number of viable cells. Finally, it was concluded that the MIX treatment was highly effective in suppressing the undesirable browning color and pungent taste after processing, and the microbes increment during storage.

Two Cases of Inhalation Injury Caused by An Explosion of Two Different Chemical Disinfectants(Sodium Dichloroiso Cyanurate & Calcium Hypochlorite) in a Swimming Pool (수영장에서 소독제 분말 가스 폭발에 의한 흡입화상 2례)

  • Lee, Su Jin;Park, Eun Young;Kim, Mi Ran;Lee, Kon Hee;Kim, Kwang Nam
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.198-202
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    • 2003
  • Of all toxic inhalant exposures, chlorine is one of the most common toxic chemical inhalants. When acutely inhaled, it can be responsible for symptoms ranging from upper air way irritation to more serious respiratory effects. It can also deteriorate lung function and lead to death. Chlorine and its compounds such as chlorinated cyanurates and hypochlorites are commonly used in water disinfection. The chemical agents discussed in this article are sodium dichloroiso cyanurate and calcium hypochlorite which are the two most popular products for swimming pool chlorination. They are both strong oxidizing agents which are soluble in water. Between the above two alkali agents, acid-base interaction occurred and generated heat. And the acid drove the combination of hypochlorous and chloride ions to form chlorine gas. We have experienced, two boys who had inhalation injuries caused by an accidental explosion which occurred in a swimming pool by mixing two different chlorinating agents : sodium dichloroiso cyanurate and calcium hypochlorite. The children suffered from respiratory difficulties after the exposure. They both required intensive care management and one needed the support of mechanical ventilation.

Dissolution and Structure Analysis of Phosphate Water Soluble glasses (인산염계 수용성 유리의 용출 및 구조 분석)

  • Yoon, Young-Jin;Yoon, Tae-Min;Lee, Yong-Soo;Kang, Won-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.12 no.7
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    • pp.545-549
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    • 2002
  • Potassium-Calcium-Phosphate glasses in range $XCaO\cdot(50-X)K_2O$ \cdot $50P_2$$O^{5}$were investigated. Glass transition temperature(Tg) of prepared glasses were below $520^{\circ}C$, thermal expansion coefficient from $270.3$\times$10^{7}$ to $604.5$\times$10^{7}$/$^{\circ}C$. The structure of XCaO.(50-X)$K_2$O\cdot$50P_2$$O^{5}$ glasses were examined by FT-IR spectroscopy indirectly. As CaO was increased, Ts, Tg, P-O-P bonding strength and chemical durability were increased. Glass surface change was observed with increasing dissolution time using bulk specimen, weight loss and pH change were measured as function of the dissolution time.

Characteristics of $PM_{2.5}$ in Kanghwa (강화에서의 $PM_{2.5}$ 특성)

  • 최민규;여현구;임종억;조기철;김희강
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.573-583
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    • 2000
  • In order to investigate the characteristics of PM(sub)2.5 in the background area, the following pollutant were measured from February 1996 to June 1999 in Kanghwa: PM(sub)2.5 mass, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and potassium. The mean concentration of PM(sub)2.5 mass was 25.8$\pm$1.2$\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥(range 5.18~85.74). This value was higher than the annual PM(sub)2.5 US NAAQS(15$\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥) and the total number of samples higher than the 24-h PM(sub)2.5 US NAAQS(65$\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥) was seven. PM(sub)2.5 masses also showed temporal variations both yearly and seasonally. Total water soluble ions constituted about 45% of PM(sub)2.5 miss, and sulfate, nitrate and ammonium were main components in water soluble ions. Compared with the literature data from other areas, the measured PM(sub)2.5 concentrations were relatively high.

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Characteristics According to the Size Distributions of Respirable Particulate During Yellow Sand Episode in Kosan, Jeju Island (황사기간도안 제주, 고산지역에서 호흡성 분진의 입자 분포 특성)

  • Kim, Jeong-Ho;Ahn, Jun-Young;Han, Jin-Seok;Lee, Jeong-Joo
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.91-96
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    • 2003
  • This study was intended as an investigation of characteristics of background site atmospheric respirable particulate matters(RPM), and fine particles(<2.5 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$). The particle size distributions during the phenomenon of Yellow Sand(YS) occurs from April, 2001. Atmospheric aerosol particulate matter was directly collected on the Jeju island between 1 to 30, April, 2001 using an eight-stage cascade impacter(particle size range: 0.43-11 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$), and cyclone separator(cut size: 2.5, 10 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$). The episode of YS observed in background monitoring site, Kosan and appeared 2 times at sampling period. The mass concentrations of fine and coarse particles for YS episode were 34.2 and 59.6 $\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥, respectively, which were significantly increased amounts compared to 13.3 and 13.0 $\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥ for NonYS(NYS). Most size distributions had two peaks, one at 0.43∼.65 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ and the other at 3.3${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$4.7 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$. The result of analysis of water-soluble ion component indicated that sulfate was mainly ion component, but nitrate and calcium ion was significantly increased at the YS episode.

Effects of Organic Acids on Availability of Phosphate and Growth of Corn in Phosphate and Salts Accumulated Soil

  • Kim, Myung-Sook;Park, Seong-Jin;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Yun, Sun-Gang;Ko, Byong-Gu;Yang, Jae E.
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.265-270
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    • 2016
  • Accumulated Phosphate can be released by ligand exchange reaction of organic acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of the organic acids on the availability of phosphate and the growth of crop in phosphate and salts accumulated soil. Soil samples were collected from farmer's plastic film house. Available phosphate and electrical conductivity of soil were $3,005mg\;kg^{-1}$ and $16.63mg\;kg^{-1}$ which were 6 and 8 times higher than the optimum range of soil for crop growth, respectively. Corns were cultivated in pots for 2 months. Treatments were no treatment (control), phosphate fertilizer (P), citric acid (CA) 1, 5, 10 mM, and oxalic acid (OA) 1, 5, 10 mM. Water soluble phosphorus, available phosphate, corn growth and uptake were determined after cultivation. Results showed that organic acids increased water soluble phosphorus and available phosphate. For the level of 10 mM, the order of effectiveness of organic acids for water soluble P was citric acid (44%) > oxalic acid (32%). Height and dry weight of corns were increased significantly by the treatment of citric acid 1 and 5 mM. Also, corn absorbed more phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium, calcium and magnesium in the treatment of citric acid 1 mM than these of other treatments. Even though phosphate availability of soil was enhanced by addition of citric acid 10 mM, the growth of corns decreased because high concentration of citric acid caused salt damage by increasement of electrical conductivity. Thus, the citric acid of 1 mM has the potential to improve the availability of phosphate and the healthy growth of corns.

Formation of a Unique 1:2 Calcium-Calixquinone Complex in Aqueous Media

  • Kang, Sun-Kil;Lee, One-Sun;Chang, Suk-Kyu;Chung, Doo-Soo;Kim, Ha-Suck;Chung, Taek-Dong
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.793-799
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    • 2011
  • We report the complexation behavior of calix[4]arenemonoquinone-triacid (CTAQ), which is an electroactive and water-soluble receptor for calcium ion. UV-visible and NMR spectroscopic studies revealed that CTAQ in aqueous media forms 1:2 as well as 1:1 (metal ion:CTAQ) stoichiometric complexes with $Ca^{2+}$, $Sr^{2+}$, and $Ba^{2+}$ ions. The nonlinear fitting of titration curves based on UV-visible absorption spectra showed that the binding constants of CTAQ for $Ca^{2+}$ ion are 4 $({\pm}2){\times}10^6\;M^{-1}$ for 1:1 and 1.4 $({\pm}0.5){\times}10^{11}\;M^{-2}$ for 1:2 complex. NMR conformational studies and the titration curves corroborate that the $Ca^{2+}$:CTAQ complex in aqueous solution is not present in the form of merely 1:1 one, being consistent with UV-visible spectrophotometric results. The Monte Carlo simulation supports the presence of a stable conformer of 1:2 complexes in which a $Ca^{2+}$ ion is interposed between two CTAQs at the global minimum. This is the first model of 1:2 stoichiometric complex of calix[4]arene and alkaline earth ions in aqueous media.

The Effect of Activated Ion Calcium for Production of Panax ginseng Seedlings in Paddy Field (논 인삼 우량묘 생산을 위한 활성이온칼슘 처리효과)

  • Kim, Dong-Won;Kim, Jong-Yeob;You, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Chang-Su;Kim, Hee-Jun;Park, Jong-Suk;Kim, Jeong-Man;Lee, Kang-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.124-128
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    • 2012
  • When ginseng seedlings are cultured in paddy fields, quality degradation and yield reduction are induced by severe plant loss with chlorosis on leaves occurred physiological disorder by excessive salt and poor drainage, rusty-root occurrence, and root rot etc. Accordingly, in order to solve these problems, this study was performed to investigate the treatment method, concentrations and time of activated ion calcium as environment-friendly agricultural materials. Activated ion calcium is an enriched and purified water-soluble mineral calcium component for absorbing quickly into plant as a highly functional calcium and it is an alkaline calcium of 37% (370 $m{\ell}$/1 ${\ell}$) concentration with pH 13. Treatment method was that ginseng seeds were sown after removing water in the shade after seed immersion for 1 minute with active ion calcium of 20-fold diluted solution, and then irrigated $4{\ell}$ per 3.3 $m^2$ with 200-fold, 400-fold, and 600-fold diluted solution before emergence on late March, and supplied 1 time on leaves with 500-fold diluted solution in June and July respectively. The disease rate by treatment of activated ion calcium was that on the treatment of soil irrigated with 200-fold diluted solution compared to non-treated soil, damping-off was 33%, anthracnose was 100% reduced and the occurrence rate of rusty-root was 30% reduced. In addition, when active ion calcium of 200-fold diluted solution were soil irrigated, first and second grade ginseng were respectively 26% and 22% produced more, compared with control.

Binding of the Hexavalent Chromium Ions in the Process of Cement Hydration (시멘트 수화에 따른 6가 크롬의 고정화 특성)

  • Jung, Min-Sun;Hwang, Jun-Pil;Hong, Sung-In;Ann, Ki-Yong
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.88-94
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    • 2013
  • The hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is well known as a hazardous ion, presumably inducing dermatic diseases and if serious cancer. The present study concerns the binding capacity of Cr(VI) ions in the cement powder and matrix for a quantitative technique of Cr(VI) ions in cement to influence human health. Both the water-soluble and acid-soluble Cr(VI) ions present in 3 types of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), pulverised fuel ash (PFA), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), and silica fume (SF) were measured using the spectrophotometer. As a result, it was found that the concentration of water-soluble Cr(VI) ion in cement ranged from 10.5 to 18.9mg/kg-cement, and in the additional materials a very low value of Cr(VI) ion was measured. Acid-soluble Cr(VI) ion was even higher than water-soluble Cr(VI) ion, ranging from 172.4 to 318.2mg/kg-cement. Nevertheless, the concentration of acid-soluble Cr(VI) ion is not proportional to addition of acid. It depends rather the variable pH of solvent involving cement paste. As enough cement hydration occurs, the binding capacity of Cr(VI) ion increases, inhibiting this ions from leaching out in the presence of hydration products such as ettringite or tri-calcium aluminate which bind Cr(VI) ion by ion-exchange.