• Title, Summary, Keyword: water-soluble calcium

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Quality Characteristics of Calcium Acetate Prepared with Vinegars and Ash of Black Snail (식초와 다슬기회분을 이용하여 제조한 초산칼슘의 품질 특성)

  • 이명예;이예경;김순동
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.593-597
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristics of liquid calcium acetate (LCAs) and solid calcium acetate (SCAs), Br-LCA, Pe-LCA and Ap-LCA as liquid form, Br-SCA, Pe-SCA and Ap-SCA as solid form. Calcium acetate was prepared by reacting of vinegars [brown rice (Br), persimmons (Pe) and apple (Ap)] and ash of black snail in order to obtain natural water soluble calcium resources. The pHs of the vinegars for preparing calcium acetate (CA) were the range of 2.34 ∼ 3.06, and the contents of the ash of black snail which reacted to 100 mL of the vinegars were 20.43∼23.50 g. The yields of solid CAs from 100 mL of the vinegars were 11.02∼13.01 g. The colors of liquid and solid CAs were light yellow in Ap-LCA and Ap-SCA, brown in Br-LCA and Br-SCA, dark brown in Pe-LCA and Pe-SCA. Calcium contents of Br-LCA, Pe-LCA and Ap-LCA were 3.02, 2.06 and 2.30% (w/v), and those of Br-SCA, Pe-SCA and Ap-SCA were 27.15, 16.31 and 19.48% (w/w), respectively. The solubilities of the solid CAs were 36.82 ∼ 39.92% (w/v) in distilled water, 32.05 ∼ 39.04% (w/v) in Soju, 13.12 ∼ 18.65% (w/v) in thick soysauce, 38.35 ∼ 38.90% (w/v) in ionic beverage, 33.47 ∼ 35.58% (w/v) in yoghurt, while the solid CAs formed the curds in soymilk and milk. The sour and bitter taste of the CAs were lower, while the astringent taste, fishy flavor and savory taste were higher than those of standard CA.

Influence of Calcium Supply on the Growth, Calcium and Oxalate Contents, Mineral Nutrients and Ca-oxalate Crystal Formation of Cucumber (오이생육, 칼슘, 옥살산 및 무기성분 함량 및 칼슘-옥살산염 형성에 대한 칼슘처리 효과)

  • Sung, Jwa-Kyung;Lee, Su-Yeon;Lee, Ye-Jin;Kim, Rog-Young;Lee, Ju-Young;Lee, Jong-Sik;Jang, Byoung-Choon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.471-477
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    • 2010
  • Although the roles of calcium in plant are widely known, little is known about on an antagonistic effect of macro elements, oxalate biosynthesis and main shape of crystal in cucumber plant organs. Seeds of cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Ijoeunbackdadagi) were germinated in perlite tray supplied with distilled-deionized water. Seedlings were transplanted into aerated containers with a half strength of Ross nutrient solution. Ca levels treated in media were as follows; No-Ca, $Ca(NO_3)_2$ 0.25, 1.25 and 2.5 mmol $L^{-1}$, and $Ca(NO_3)_2$ 2.5 mmol $L^{-1}$ + $CaCl_210$, 25 and 50 mmol $L^{-1}$. Ca-deficient and -excessive conditions severely reduced cucumber growth, as compared to the control, and adversely affected an accumulation of macro elements (N, P, K, and Mg). Calcium favorably induced oxalate (acid-soluble) synthesis in leaves and roots of cucumber plant, but not in stem. Acid-soluble oxalate contents in leaves proportionally increased with Ca supply levels (0.91, P<0.001), however, this pattern was not observed in stem and roots. Ca-oxalate crystal formation and compositional analysis were examined using SEM-EDS technique in cucumber leaves. The main type of crystal revealed a prismatic crystal and main components were Ca, Na and Cl.

Properties of Non-Sintered Cement Pastes Immersed in Sea Waters at Different Temperatures for Binders Mixed with Different Ratios (침지된 해수 온도 및 결합재 혼합비에 따른 비소성 시멘트의 강도 특성)

  • Jun, Yubin;Kim, Tae-Wan
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.75-84
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    • 2016
  • This paper presents an investigation of the mechanical properties on non-sintered cement pastes immersed in sea waters at three different temperatures. The non-sintered cement pastes were synthesized using blended binder(Class F fly ash; FA and ground granulated blast furnace slag; GGBFS) and alkali activator(sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate). Binders were prepared by mixing the FA and GGBFS in different blend weight ratios of 6:4, 7:3 and 8:2. The alkali activators were used 5wt% of blended binder, respectively. Calcium carbonate was used as an chemical additive. The compressive strength, bulk density and absorption of alkali-activated FA-GGBFS blends pastes were measured at 3 and 28 days after immersed in sea waters at three different temperatures($5^{\circ}C$, $15^{\circ}C$ and $25^{\circ}C$). The XRD and SEM tests of the pastes were conducted at 28 days. Water-soluble chloride(free chloride) and acid-soluble chloride(total chloride) contents in the pastes were also measured after 28 days immersion in sea water. The experimental results showed that increasing the content of FA in alkali-activated FA-GGBFS blends pastes immersed in sea water increases the absorption, water-soluble chloride content and acid-soluble chloride content, and reduces the compressive strength and bulk density. And it was found that there was a variation of strength change for the alkali-activated FA-GGBFS blends pastes immersed in sea waters at three different temperatures that depends on the blending ratio of FA and GGBFS.

Degradation of Properties and Loss of Nutrients in Gelatin Soft Capsules the Manufacturing Process

  • Lee, Jin Kyoung
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.15-23
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    • 2016
  • Gelatin soft capsules, manufactured by the press through package(PTP) process, are widely used in the production of multivitamin dietary supplements and other health functional foods. Gelatin capsules can prevent light and air from having a direct contact with the contents in the capsule, and the nutrients inside the capsules are preserved without any loss. In the present study, on the basis of the results on the safety of gelatin capsules. The parameters investigated included degradation of the capsules before their shelf life, capsule deformation, and changes in specific nutrients. Moisture and heat in the production and storage environments of the capsules caused the gelatin to swell and attach some of the inorganic salts in the vitamin contents. Nutritional component analysis showed that B1, B5, B9, and B12 contents were decreased, while mineral elemental analysis shown calcium, chloride, and zinc compound were found to be infused into the gelatin of the capsule shell.

Effect of Preharvest Treatment of $CaCl_2$ and Alkaline-Reduced Water on the Quality of Oyster Mushroom during Storage (수확 전 염화칼슘 및 알카리환원수 처리가 느타리버섯 저장에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Yun-Soo;Lee, Kyoung-Min;Seo, Geon-Sik;Kim, Min-Kyung;Hwang, Yong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.355-360
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    • 2010
  • This experiment was focused to determine the effect of preharvest treatment of alkaine-reduced water (ARW) and $CaCl_2$ on the storage of oyster mushroom. ARW was prepared through electrolysis of water with $CaCl_2$ (0.1%) as salts and $CaCl_2$ (0.1%) was dissolved in deionized water. Mushrooms were harvested after two sprays of each solutions and quality factors including firmness and browning was determined during storage. The severity of browning was more greater when stored 20 days. Unlike $CaCl_2$, ARW containing 139 ug/L calcium was positive on maintaining freshness in terms of delay of firmness loss and respiration drop, keeping soluble carbohydrate content such as trehalose, and inhibiting the occurrence of browning. Browning, however, seemed to be more influenced by the developmental stage of mushroom at harvest. Even no significant difference was found, the level of ${\beta}$-glucan was low in ARW treatment compared to that of control. Further research including application and preparation methods of ARW is required to clarify the potential of ARW on keeping freshness of oyster mushroom through inhibiting tissue browning.

Effects of Different Levels of Vitamin-Mineral Premixes on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Growing-Finishing Pigs

  • Tian, J.Z.;Lee, J.H.;Kim, J.D.;Han, Y.K.;Park, K.M.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.515-524
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    • 2001
  • Two experiments using growing and finishing pigs (Landrace$\times$Duroc$\times$Yorkshire) were conducted to determine the effects of different levels of vitamins and trace minerals (VTM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics and meat quality of growing-finishing pigs, and to evaluate the suitability of vitamin-mineral levels commonly used in the swine industry in Korea. A total of 120 three crossbred (Landrace$\times$Duroc$\times$Yorkshire) growing (Experiment I: 20.90 0.44 kg average initial body weight) and finishing (Experiment II: 53.55 0.97 kg average initial body weight) were used in 6 and 9 weeks feeding trials, respectively. Pigs were allotted on the basis of sex and weight to 5 treatments with 6 replications per treatment with 4 pigs per pen in a completely randomized block design. Treatments were: 1) control, 2) fat soluble vitamin 200% vs. control, 3) water soluble vitamin 200% vs. control, 4) trace mineral 50% vs. control, 5) trace mineral 200% vs. control. In experiment I, during the overall experimental period (0 to 6 weeks, 21 to 54 kg body weight), ADG of the 200% trace mineral supplemented group was significantly higher than that of the 50% trace mineral supplemented group. There were no significant differences among other the treatments. Digestibility of crude protein was lowest in mineral 50% supplemented group (p<0.05). Calcium digestibility was significantly higher in the 200% fat soluble vitamin supplemented group than in the other treatments (p<0.05). In experiment II, during the overall experimental period (0 to 9 weeks, 54 to 106 kg body weight), growth performance was not significantly affected by dietary vitamin and trace mineral levels. However, increasing level of water soluble vitamins at the level of 200% compared to control had a tendency to improve the overall growth performance. Overall carcass characteristics except for carcass length did not differ among pigs fed the dietary treatments. Loin eye area, pH, drip loss and shear force of meat were not affected by dietary vitamin and trace mineral levels. There was a trend for less fat content (%) in pork when the level of vitamin and trace mineral was increased, but the difference was not significant. Flavor score was the lowest in control and highest in the 200% fat soluble vitamin supplemented group (p<0.05). Juiciness of muscle was lower in the 200% fat soluble vitamin supplemented group than other dietary treatments, except for trace mineral 50% supplemented group (p<0.05). Based on these results, it is suggested that "typical" commercial levels of vitamin and trace minerals used by feed companies in Korea are sufficient to meet requirement for the maximum growth of growing-finishing pigs. Our results suggests that a reduction in trace mineral levels in commercial diets could be considered to reduce feed cost and nutrient excretion with economic and environmental benefits.

Effect of Soy Protein Isolate and Calcium Chloride on the Properties of Water Soluble Chitosan Film (분리 대두단백질과 염화칼슘을 첨가하여 제조한 수용성 키토산 필름의 특성)

  • Cho, Ji-Mi;Park, Sang-Kyu;Lee, You-Seok;Rhee, Chong-Ouk
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.113-116
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    • 2003
  • Color value, total color difference $({\triangle}E)$, puncture strength (PS), tensile strength (TS), percent elongation(%E) at break values, and water vapor permeability (WVP) were determined for water-soluble chitosan films added with soy protein isolate (SPI) and $CaCl_2$. Mechanical and water vapor barrier properties of the chitosan films were affected by SPI and $CaCl_2$ concentrations. PS value $(174.5-448.8\;g_f)$ of the chitosan films increased with increasing concentration of $CaCl_2$ TS value of 0.05% $CaCl_2$-added chitosan films significantly increased to 1.58 MPa compared to 0.06 MPa of the control. %E values ranged from 12.25 to 44.80% and increased with increasing concentration of $CaCl_2$. WVP of $CaCl_2$-added films was lower than that of SPI-added films.

Recovery of Lactic Acid from Fermentation Broth Using Precipitation and Reactive Distillation (발효액으로부터 침전과 반응증류를 이용한 젖산의 회수)

  • Park, Suk-Chan;Lee, Sang-Mok;Kim, Young-Jun;Kim, Woo-Sik;Koo, Yoon-Mo
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.199-203
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    • 2006
  • Precipitation and reactive distillation were employed to recover lactic acid from fermentation broth. Lime was initially added to fermentation broth in order to convert soluble lactic acid to an insoluble calcium lactate form. Drowning-out crystallization was used to decrease the solubility of calcium lactate by adding ethanol as a co-precipitant. In the ideal solution of organic acids as well as fermentation broth, precipitation experiments were performed with varying amounts of ethanol. Precipitation process was followed by reactive distillation. Carboxylate salts formed in the previous precipitation process were mixed with carbon dioxide and triethylamine to precipitate as calcium carbonate. The remaining liquid was distilled for 1 hr at different temperatures. Triethylamine and water were recovered from the top of the distiller, while organic acids, inducing lactic acid as a main component remained in feeding bottle. The yield of recovered lactic acid was 67.5% with the purity of 99.7%.

Characterization of the Organic Matrix Protein in the Freshwater Pelecypod Shells (담수산 이매패류 패각내 유기각질 단백질 특성)

  • 박성빈;조동현
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.3-14
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    • 1987
  • The electrophoretic and innunological cnalyses of organic matrices in the shells of freshwater bivalves were made in order to dlucidate the biochemical characteristics and species-specific differinces of the applied shells, The water-soluble and insoluble matrices of four species of freshwater bivalves, Andodonta fukudai, Unio douglasiae, Lanceolaria and Chrbicula fluminea, were used as analytical materials, There was non-identity in immuno affinity between anti soluble matrix(anti-Sm) and anti insoluble matrix(anti-ISM)sera against the organic matrix of Andodnta fukudai. The SMs of four species (S. fukudai, U.douglasiae, L. acrorhyncha, and C. fluminea) showed the differences in the precipitate arcs at the level of family, though ISMs did mot show differences. In the electrophoretic analysis, all foru species had two SDS-electrophoretic bands of SM, of which molecular wights appeared to be lower than 55,000, shereas the native organic matrices of foru speceis had higher molecular weighrs than those from SDS-dldctrophoresis. Only calcium ion among many ions in extrapallial fluid(EPF) caused SM to change into insoluble molecules, thus the EPF pretreated with Ca++did not form the precipitate arc when did the immuno diffusion whth anti SM serum. ISM precursor may be polymerized into macromolecules like periostracin, a precusor of periostracum, judging from the similat polymerization patterns in 0.1M Tris formate buffer(pH 3); they may be made insoluble macromolecules due to their strong natrue of hydrophobicity.

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A Review of Fluoridation of Municipal Drinking Water; Considering the Interaction of Cations and Fluoride (상수도 불소화에 관한 고찰;양이온의 불화염 형성을 중심으로)

  • Ahn, Hei-Won;Shin, Dong-Chun;Chung, Yong
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.13 no.1_2
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 1998
  • In Korea, fluoride was first introduced into the drinking water of residents of Jinhae, KyungNam in 1981 for the prevention of dental caries. Ever since, growing numbers of communities favor fluoridation. The mechanism of F prevention of tooth decay is well known: fluoride ions substitute for hydroxyl ions in hydroxyapatite of hard tissues, which result in crystal perfection, with consequent reduction in dental caries. Soluble fluorides such as sodium fluoride are almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. However, the presence of divalent or trivalent cations such as aluminum, magnesium, and calcium that can complex with F can reduce the degree of absorption. In U.S.A., over 7000 communities are now adding F to their drinking water. However, some portion of population oppose fluoridation, voicing both concern about the safety of fluoridation as well as for personal choice. Thus, This paper reviews the interaction of fluoride and cations as well as fluoride and suggests possible problems associated with fluoridation, a controversial issue.

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