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Prediction of Potential Species Richness of Plants Adaptable to Climate Change in the Korean Peninsula (한반도 기후변화 적응 대상 식물 종풍부도 변화 예측 연구)

  • Shin, Man-Seok;Seo, Changwan;Lee, Myungwoo;Kim, Jin-Yong;Jeon, Ja-Young;Adhikari, Pradeep;Hong, Seung-Bum
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.562-581
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    • 2018
  • This study was designed to predict the changes in species richness of plants under the climate change in South Korea. The target species were selected based on the Plants Adaptable to Climate Change in the Korean Peninsula. Altogether, 89 species including 23 native plants, 30 northern plants, and 36 southern plants. We used the Species Distribution Model to predict the potential habitat of individual species under the climate change. We applied ten single-model algorithms and the pre-evaluation weighted ensemble method. And then, species richness was derived from the results of individual species. Two representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) were used to simulate the species richness of plants in 2050 and 2070. The current species richness was predicted to be high in the national parks located in the Baekdudaegan mountain range in Gangwon Province and islands of the South Sea. The future species richness was predicted to be lower in the national park and the Baekdudaegan mountain range in Gangwon Province and to be higher for southern coastal regions. The average value of the current species richness showed that the national park area was higher than the whole area of South Korea. However, predicted species richness were not the difference between the national park area and the whole area of South Korea. The difference between current and future species richness of plants could be the disappearance of a large number of native and northern plants from South Korea. The additional reason could be the expansion of potential habitat of southern plants under climate change. However, if species dispersal to a suitable habitat was not achieved, the species richness will be reduced drastically. The results were different depending on whether species were dispersed or not. This study will be useful for the conservation planning, establishment of the protected area, restoration of biological species and strategies for adaptation of climate change.

Immunohistochemical study on distribution of proliferating cells and tumor formations in intestinal tracts of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated rats (1,2-dimethylhydrazine을 투여한 rat 장관의 증식세포 분포와 종양발생에 대한 면역조직화학적 연구)

  • Kang, Won-hwa;Kwak, Soo-dong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.167-176
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    • 1997
  • The present investigation was focussed mainly on the development of the tumors and proliferating cells on the intestinal tracts of 1, 2-dimethyl-hydrazine(DMH)-treated young or adult rats. 26 rats(Wistar, 14 young rats weighting approximately 130~180gm and 12 adult rats weighting approximately 500~550gm) were given subcutaneously once weekly with 20mg of DMH/kg body weight(BW)/week for 8~22 weeks. Individual body weight were recorded weekly at the same day and time. The rats were killed at 8, 13, 15. 17, 19, 21 and 22 weeks. The intestinal tracts were opened longitudinally and carefully examined for tumors. The localization, number, and size of tumors were noted. Tumor-bearing areas were dissected out and fixed on neutral buffered 10% formalin and normal-looking mucosa from 8~22 weeks rats were also taken for fixation. Paraffin sections were stained by H-E for histopathological examination or with immunohistochemical stain for bromodeoxyuridine(Brdur) positive cells. 1. The growth proportion of body weight appeared to be decreased in the DMH-treated young rats than in control young rats and body weight of DMH-treated adult rats appeared to be 13.4% or less lower than weighted on 0 week. 2. Macroscopically, the developed tumors in the intestinal tracts were not observed as early as the 13 weeks after DMH treatment. The number of developed tumors per rat was found to be 14.3, 18.8, 22.3 in 15, 17 and 22 weeks. The numbers of tumors in intestinal regions per rat were 2.1, 4.3, 5.4, 2.5 in duodenum, jejunum, ilium and colon on 15 weeks, 2.3, 6.4, 7.8, 2.3, on 17 weeks, and 2.7, 9.3, 9.0, 1.3 on 22 weeks, respectively and the ileum and jejunum were higher in appearance rate of tumors and tumor types are dome shapes and diameter of largest tumor were 6.3mm. 3. Histopathologically, intestinal mucosa were thickened by the irregular distorted and distended crypts following hyperplasia. The tumors developed on the mucosa and submucosa and were recognized to be adenocarcinoma. 4. Immunohistochemically, the labeling index(LI) was calculated as the ratio of the number of Brdur-labeled cells to the total number of column cells of the crypts with longitudinal axis. LI of Brdur positive cells per crypt were 5.6%, 8.0% on small intestine of control and 22 week group, respectively and 3.7%, 12.7% on large intestine of control and 22 week group, respectively and were appeared to be increase in 22 week group than in control group and to be more number of proliferating cells in 22 week group than in control group. 5. LI of Brdur positive cells in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 segments of crypt column were 11.7%, 10.7%, 3.8%, 0.6%, 0% in small intestine of control group and 23.5%, 11.8%, 2.3%, 2.4%, 0.8% in small intestine of 22 week group, and 5.4%, 7.4%, 3.8%, 1.0%, 0.4% in large intestine of control group and 29.5%, 20.3%, 5.9%, 6.3%, 1.3% in large intestine of 22 week group respectively. So results indicate that the number of proliferating cells by DMH treatment increase and were concentrated on the 1, 2 segments of crypt columns.

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Reference Values and Water quality Assessment Based on the Regional Environmental Characteristics (해역의 환경특성을 고려한 해양환경 기준설정과 수질등급 평가)

  • Rho, Tae-Keun;Lee, Tong-Sup;Lee, Sang-Ryong;Choi, Man-Sik;Park, Chul;Lee, Jong-Hyun;Lee, Jae-Young;Kim, Seung-Su
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.45-58
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    • 2012
  • For the development of reference values and evaluation of water quality in various environmental conditions, we divided the coastal region around Korean peninsular into 5 distinctive ecological regions based on the influence of surface current, depth, tidal range, turbidity, and climate condition. We used national marine environment monitoring data collected by National Fisheries Research & Development Institute(NFRDI) from 2000-2009. For the reference values, we used maximum seasonal mean from 2000 to 2007 for DIN, DIP, and chlorophyll-a and minimum seasonal mean for secchi depth measured at stations without the influence of river runoff in each ecological regions. For the reference value of bottom dissolved oxygen saturation, we used minimum mean value of 90% calculated from minimal riverine influence stations of whole regions. We calculated enrichment score for each assessment criteria. The enrichment score of DIN, DIP, and Chlorophyll-a was 1 (=< reference value), 2 (< 110% of reference value), 3 (< 125% of reference value), 4 (< 150% of reference value), and 5 (> 150% of reference value). The enrichment score of DO saturation and Secchi depth was 1 (> reference value), 2 (> 90% of reference value), 3 (>75 % of reference value), 4 (> 50% of reference value), and 5 (< 50% of reference value). We calculated water quality index using weighted linear combination of five enrichment score for the comparison of whole regions. From the water quality index distribution calculated from all stations between 2000 and 2007 period, we classified into 5 grade based on the standard deviation calculated from total water quality index. We assigned grade very good(I), good(II), moderate(III), bad(IV), and very bad(V) when the water quality index was less than 23, minimum + 1 sd, +2 sd, +3 sd, and grater than minium+ 3 sd, respectively.

Smoking Patterns, Oral Health Behavior and Perception of the South Korean Army (육군의 복무 상황에 따른 흡연 양상과 구강보건행태 및 인식)

  • Jang, Sun-Ok;Kim, Yoon-Hee;Kang, Jung-Yun;Ko, Min-Seo;Kim, Bo-Yon;Park, Ji-Hae;Shim, Seo-Youn;Kim, Sang-Hoon;Chung, Won-Gyun
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.131-139
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate smoking patterns, oral health behavior and perception of dental healthcare of military personnel in the South Korea Army. All 367 subjects were surveyed by the structured questionnaires with convenience sampling method. The questionnaires were consisting of 22 items. Depending on the conditions of military training, the distribution and differences of smoking patterns and oral behaviors were evaluated by frequency test, Weighted Kappa, Paired t-test and ANOVA. The differences of oral health perception on smoking were demonstrated by Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square test. In addition, Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) was used to estimate the effects of oral behavior for the conditions of military training and smoking. The number of cigarette during military training period was similar to that during non-military training (p=0.109). The perception of smokers such as smoking effect on oral health, oral health and systemic health, and need of education for smoking cessation was significantly lower than non-smokers (p=0.0095, p=0.0007, and p<0.0001). The probability that toothbrush frequency per day was only one was associated with higher during military training period than non-military training (OR=9.29, 95% CI 5.05-17.07). Moreover, the probability that hours of toothbrush were less than one minute was associated with higher during military training than non-military training (OR=2.19, 95% CI 1.78-2.71). To improve knowledge, attitude, and behavior of oral health for the members, the army needs to develop oral health education and tobacco cessation programs. In particular, motivation and practice for oral health care are required to improve poor oral health behavior during the military training.

Comparison of Dose Distribution in Spine Radiosurgery Plans: Simultaneously Integrated Boost and RTOG 0631 Protocol (척추뼈전이암 환자의 체부정위방사선치료계획 비교: 동시통합추가치료법 대 RTOG 0631 프로토콜)

  • Park, Su Yeon;Oh, Dongryul;Park, Hee Chul;Kim, Jin Sung;Kim, Jong Sik;Shin, Eun Hyuk;Kim, Hye Young;Jung, Sang Hoon;Han, Youngyih
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.176-184
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    • 2014
  • In this study, we compared dose distributions from simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) method versus the RTOG 0631 protocol for spine radiosurgery. Spine radiosurgery plans were performed in five patients with localized spinal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma. The computed tomography (CT) and T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were fused for delineating of GTV and spinal cord. In SIB plan, the clinical target volume (CTV1) was included the whole compartments of the involved spine, while RTOG 0631 protocol defines the CTV2 as the involved vertebral body and both left and right pedicles. The CTV2 includes transverse process and posterior element according to the extent of GTV. The doses were prescribed 18 Gy to GTV and 10 Gy to CTV1 in SIB plan, while the prescription of RTOG 0631 protocol was applied 18 Gy to CTV2. The results of dose-volume histogram (DVH) showed that there were competitive in target coverage, while the doses of spinal cord and other normal organs were lower in SIB method than in RTOG 0631 protocol. The 85% irradiated volume of VB in RTOG 0631 protocol was similar to that in the SIB plan. However, the dose to normal organs in RTOG 0631 had a tendency to higher than that in SIB plan. The SIB plan might be an alternative method in case of predictive serious complications of surrounded normal organs. In conclusion, although both approaches of SIB or RTOG 0631 showed competitive planning results, tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) through diverse clinical researches should be analyzed in the future.

Comparison of chronic disease risk by dietary carbohydrate energy ratio in Korean elderly: Using the 2007-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (한국 노인 식사의 탄수화물 에너지비에 따른 만성질환 위험성 비교: 2007~2009년 국민건강영양조사 자료 이용)

  • Park, Min Seon;Suh, Yoon Suk;Chung, Young-Jin
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.247-257
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: It is reported that most senior people consume a high carbohydrate diet, while a high carbohydrate diet could contribute to the risk of chronic disease. The aim of this study is to determine whether a high carbohydrate diet can increase the risk of chronic disease in elderly Koreans. Methods: Using the 2007-2009 Korean National Health Nutrition Examination Survey data, out of a total of 3,917 individuals aged 65 and above, final 1,535 subjects were analyzed, divided by dietary carbohydrate energy ratio into two groups of moderate carbohydrate ratio (MCR, 55-70%) and excessive carbohydrate ratio (ECR, > 70%). All data were processed after the application of weighted value, using a general linear model or logistic regression. Results: Eighty one percent of elderly Koreans consumed diets with carbohydrate energy ratio above 70%. The ECR group included more female subjects, rural residents, lower income, and lower education level. The ECR group showed lower waist circumference, lower diastolic blood pressure, and lower frequency of consumption of meat and egg, milk, and alcohol. The intake of energy and most nutrients, with the exception of fiber, potassium, vitamin A, and carotene, was lower in the ECR group compared to the MCR group. When analyzed by gender, the ECR group showed lower risk of dyslipidemia in male and obesity in female subjects, even though the ECR group showed low intake of some nutrients. No difference in the risk of hypertension, diabetes, and anemia was observed between the two groups in male or female subjects. Conclusion: This result suggested that a high carbohydrate diet would not be a cause to increase the risk of chronic disease in the elderly. Further study is needed in order to determine an appropriate carbohydrate energy ratio for elderly Koreans to reduce the risk of chronic disease.

SHRIMP U-Pb ages of zircon from banded gneisses and a leucocratic dyke in the Wilson Terrane, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica (남극 북빅토리아랜드 윌슨 암체 호상 편마암과 우백질 암맥의 저어콘 SHRIMP U-Pb 연령)

  • Kim, Yoonsup;Kim, Taehwan;Lee, Jong Ik;Kim, Sook Ju
    • Journal of the Geological Society of Korea
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.489-507
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    • 2017
  • The Wilson Terrane is primarily composed of Precambrian-Early Palaeozoic medium- to high-grade metasedimentary rocks as well as Cambrian-Ordovician intrusive rocks, and was amalgamated with the northeastern Bowers and Robertson Bay terranes during the Ross Orogeny to form northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. In order to preliminarily constrain timing of metamorphism and provenance of the sedimentary protoliths, the U-Pb compositions of zircon from two banded gneisses and a leucocratic dyke of the Wilson Terrane were measured using a SHRIMP-IIe. Apart from Early Ordovician magmatic ages, the U-Pb age distribution of zircon is characterized by a couple of major populations at ~1.0-1.2 Ga and ~530-700 Ma correlative to the Grenville and Pan-African orogenies, respectively, with scattered ages over 1.6 Ga and the prominent early-to-middle Neoproterozoic (~700-900 Ma) absence. The relatively small fraction, high Th/U ratio, and rare metamorphic texture of Early Cambrian zircon in the banded-gneiss samples suggest their youngest apparent age ~530 Ma as the maximum depositional age. For the leucocratic dyke, the weighted mean $^{206}Pb/^{238}U$ age of the oscillatory-zoned overgrowth rims of zircon is ~480 Ma, and apparent ages for the structureless, intermediate regions with low Th/U ratios between inherited core and the oscillatory-zoned rim cluster at ~500 Ma. In summary, our preliminary geochronologic data may reflect the timing of tectonic processes in the Wilson Terrane such as (1) continuous supplies of detrital materials during the Early Cambrian; (2) the granulite facies metamorphism at ~500 Ma; and (3) additional thermal input at ~480 Ma resulting in crustal reworking.

Rough Set Analysis for Stock Market Timing (러프집합분석을 이용한 매매시점 결정)

  • Huh, Jin-Nyung;Kim, Kyoung-Jae;Han, In-Goo
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.77-97
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    • 2010
  • Market timing is an investment strategy which is used for obtaining excessive return from financial market. In general, detection of market timing means determining when to buy and sell to get excess return from trading. In many market timing systems, trading rules have been used as an engine to generate signals for trade. On the other hand, some researchers proposed the rough set analysis as a proper tool for market timing because it does not generate a signal for trade when the pattern of the market is uncertain by using the control function. The data for the rough set analysis should be discretized of numeric value because the rough set only accepts categorical data for analysis. Discretization searches for proper "cuts" for numeric data that determine intervals. All values that lie within each interval are transformed into same value. In general, there are four methods for data discretization in rough set analysis including equal frequency scaling, expert's knowledge-based discretization, minimum entropy scaling, and na$\ddot{i}$ve and Boolean reasoning-based discretization. Equal frequency scaling fixes a number of intervals and examines the histogram of each variable, then determines cuts so that approximately the same number of samples fall into each of the intervals. Expert's knowledge-based discretization determines cuts according to knowledge of domain experts through literature review or interview with experts. Minimum entropy scaling implements the algorithm based on recursively partitioning the value set of each variable so that a local measure of entropy is optimized. Na$\ddot{i}$ve and Booleanreasoning-based discretization searches categorical values by using Na$\ddot{i}$ve scaling the data, then finds the optimized dicretization thresholds through Boolean reasoning. Although the rough set analysis is promising for market timing, there is little research on the impact of the various data discretization methods on performance from trading using the rough set analysis. In this study, we compare stock market timing models using rough set analysis with various data discretization methods. The research data used in this study are the KOSPI 200 from May 1996 to October 1998. KOSPI 200 is the underlying index of the KOSPI 200 futures which is the first derivative instrument in the Korean stock market. The KOSPI 200 is a market value weighted index which consists of 200 stocks selected by criteria on liquidity and their status in corresponding industry including manufacturing, construction, communication, electricity and gas, distribution and services, and financing. The total number of samples is 660 trading days. In addition, this study uses popular technical indicators as independent variables. The experimental results show that the most profitable method for the training sample is the na$\ddot{i}$ve and Boolean reasoning but the expert's knowledge-based discretization is the most profitable method for the validation sample. In addition, the expert's knowledge-based discretization produced robust performance for both of training and validation sample. We also compared rough set analysis and decision tree. This study experimented C4.5 for the comparison purpose. The results show that rough set analysis with expert's knowledge-based discretization produced more profitable rules than C4.5.

Image Watermarking for Copyright Protection of Images on Shopping Mall (쇼핑몰 이미지 저작권보호를 위한 영상 워터마킹)

  • Bae, Kyoung-Yul
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.147-157
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    • 2013
  • With the advent of the digital environment that can be accessed anytime, anywhere with the introduction of high-speed network, the free distribution and use of digital content were made possible. Ironically this environment is raising a variety of copyright infringement, and product images used in the online shopping mall are pirated frequently. There are many controversial issues whether shopping mall images are creative works or not. According to Supreme Court's decision in 2001, to ad pictures taken with ham products is simply a clone of the appearance of objects to deliver nothing but the decision was not only creative expression. But for the photographer's losses recognized in the advertising photo shoot takes the typical cost was estimated damages. According to Seoul District Court precedents in 2003, if there are the photographer's personality and creativity in the selection of the subject, the composition of the set, the direction and amount of light control, set the angle of the camera, shutter speed, shutter chance, other shooting methods for capturing, developing and printing process, the works should be protected by copyright law by the Court's sentence. In order to receive copyright protection of the shopping mall images by the law, it is simply not to convey the status of the product, the photographer's personality and creativity can be recognized that it requires effort. Accordingly, the cost of making the mall image increases, and the necessity for copyright protection becomes higher. The product images of the online shopping mall have a very unique configuration unlike the general pictures such as portraits and landscape photos and, therefore, the general image watermarking technique can not satisfy the requirements of the image watermarking. Because background of product images commonly used in shopping malls is white or black, or gray scale (gradient) color, it is difficult to utilize the space to embed a watermark and the area is very sensitive even a slight change. In this paper, the characteristics of images used in shopping malls are analyzed and a watermarking technology which is suitable to the shopping mall images is proposed. The proposed image watermarking technology divide a product image into smaller blocks, and the corresponding blocks are transformed by DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform), and then the watermark information was inserted into images using quantization of DCT coefficients. Because uniform treatment of the DCT coefficients for quantization cause visual blocking artifacts, the proposed algorithm used weighted mask which quantizes finely the coefficients located block boundaries and coarsely the coefficients located center area of the block. This mask improves subjective visual quality as well as the objective quality of the images. In addition, in order to improve the safety of the algorithm, the blocks which is embedded the watermark are randomly selected and the turbo code is used to reduce the BER when extracting the watermark. The PSNR(Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) of the shopping mall image watermarked by the proposed algorithm is 40.7~48.5[dB] and BER(Bit Error Rate) after JPEG with QF = 70 is 0. This means the watermarked image is high quality and the algorithm is robust to JPEG compression that is used generally at the online shopping malls. Also, for 40% change in size and 40 degrees of rotation, the BER is 0. In general, the shopping malls are used compressed images with QF which is higher than 90. Because the pirated image is used to replicate from original image, the proposed algorithm can identify the copyright infringement in the most cases. As shown the experimental results, the proposed algorithm is suitable to the shopping mall images with simple background. However, the future study should be carried out to enhance the robustness of the proposed algorithm because the robustness loss is occurred after mask process.