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Genetic Analysis of Pigmentation Pattern in the Leopard Danio (Leopard danio 반문의 유전 양상과 생존율에 미치는 영향)

  • 이병문;강거영;송춘복
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.353-361
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    • 1998
  • Genetic analysis of body pigmentation pattern has been conducted by the reciprocal monohybrid and back crosses using the wild type zebrafish, Danio rerio, and its aquarium morphs (mutants), leopard danio. Also, the effect fo pigmentation mutation was investigated with regard to the survival rates of eggs and larvae for the first 15 days after fertilization. As a result, the pattern pigment distribution was inherited by a single gene having two alleles, and which was basically followed by the principle of dominace and segregaion in Mendelian inheritance. A locus for pigment pattern turned out to be located on an autosomal chromosome. Average survival rates estimated from the various crosses between, and within, wild type zebrafish and leopard danio were as follows ; they were 80.6${\pm}$4.8% from the crosses within leopard danios ($L{\times}L$), 70.6${\pm}$4.2% between leopard female and wild type male ($L{\times}Z$), 73.2${\pm}$2.0% between wild type female and leopard male ($Z{\times}L$), and 83.8${\pm}$6.7% within wild type zebrafish ($Z{\times}Z$). These results indicated that the leopard danio, which were reported as an "aquarium morph" several decades ago and also known as a mutant in pigmentation pattern of the wild type zebrafish, seemed to be genetically stable like the wild type of zebrafish.zebrafish.

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Comparative lectin binding patterns of Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef

  • Rhodes, Lesley L.;Cho, Yong-Chul;Cho, Eun-Seob
    • Journal of the korean society of oceanography
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.153-157
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    • 2000
  • Four different FITC-conjugated lectins were used to visually evaluate lectin binding activity by optical staining quality using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of Cochzodinium polykrikoides in nature (wild type) and culture (cultured type). Cells from the field and cultures treated with ConA fluoresced only at the outer cell wall, and the abundance and distribution of the fluorescent signal were similar. Treatment with PWM and HPA did not elicit fluorescence at the cell surface, but the wild type exposed to HPA showed greater binding than did the cultured cells, possibly due to greater concentrations of glucosamine. The wild type cells treated with LBL lectin showed a strong green fluorescence on the cell surface, whereas cultured cells did not. Signal intensity and abundance were greater than for any other lectins tested in this study. These results suggest that wild type and cultured type are significantly different based on surface sugar production. In particular, the wild type cells apear richer in galactosamine-like moieties. Neither glucose nor mannose-like moieties were present in either wild types or cultured cells.

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[Retracted] Epinephrine Control of Glycogen Metabolism in Glycogen-associated Protein Phosphatase PP1G/RGLKnockout Mice

  • 김종화;Anna A. DePaoli-Roach
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.283-290
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    • 2002
  • The glycogen-associated protein phosphatase (PP1G/$R_{GL}$) may play a central role in the hormonal control of glycogen metabolism in the skeletal muscle. Here, we investigated the in vivo epinephrine effect of glycogen metabolism in the skeletal muscle of the wild-type and $R_{GL}$ knockout mice. The administration of epinephrine increased blood glucose levels from 200±20 to 325±20 mg/dl in both wild-type and knockout mice. Epinephrine decreased the glycogen synthase -/+ G6P ratio from 0.24±0.04 to 0.10±0.02 in the wild-type, and from 0.17±0.02 to 0.06±0.01 in the knockout mice. Conversely, the glycogen phosphorylase activity ratio increased from 0.21±0.04 to 0.65±0.07 and from 0.30±0.04 to 0.81±0.06 in the epinephrine trated wild-type and knockout mice respectively. The glycogen content of the knockout mice was substantially lower (27%) than that of both wild-type mice; and epinephrine decreased glycogen content in the wild-type and knockout mice. Also, in Western blot analysis there was no compensation of the other glycogen targeting components PTG/R5 and R6 in the knockout mice compared with the wild-type. Therefore, $R_{GL}$ is not required for the epinephrine stimulation of glycogen metabolism, and rather another phosphatase and/or regulatory subunit appears to be involved.

Deficiency of iNOS Does Not Prevent Isoproterenol-induced Cardiac Hypertrophy in Mice

  • Cha, Hye-Na;Hong, Geu-Ru;Kim, Yong-Woon;Kim, Jong-Yeon;Dan, Jin-Myoung;Park, So-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.153-159
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    • 2009
  • We investigated whether deficiency of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) could prevent isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in iNOS knockout (KO) mice. Isoproterenol was continuously infused subcutaneously (15 mg/kg/day) using an osmotic minipump. Isoproterenol reduced body weight and fat mass in both iNOS KO and wild-type mice compared with saline-infused wild-type mice. Isoproterenol increased the heart weight in both iNOS KO and wild-type mice but there was no difference between iNOS KO and wild-type mice. Posterior wall thickness of left ventricle showed the same tendency with heart weight. Protein level of iNOS in the left ventricle was increased in isoproterenol-infused wild-type mice. The gene expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor-${\beta}$ (TGF-${\beta}$) in isoproterenol-infused wild-type was measured at 2, 4, 24, and 48-hour and isoproterenol increased both IL-6 (2, 4, 24, and 48-hour) and TGF-${\beta}$ (4 and 24-hour). Isoproterenol infusion for 7 days increased the mRNA level of IL-6 and TGF-${\beta}$ in iNOS KO mice, whereas the gene expression in wild-type mice was not increased. Phosphorylated form of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (pERK) was also increased by isoproterenol at 2 and 4-hour but was not increased at 7 days after infusion in wild-type mice. However, the increased pERK level in iNOS KO mice was maintained even at 7 days after isoproterenol infusion. These results suggest that deficiency of iNOS does not prevent isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy and may have potentially harmful effects on cardiac hypertrophy.

Growth, quality, and yield characteristics of transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) overexpressing StMyb1R-1 under water deficit

  • Im, Ju-Sung;Cho, Kwang-Soo;Cho, Ji-Hong;Park, Young-Eun;Cheun, Chung-Gi;Kim, Hyun-Jun;Cho, Hyun-Mook;Lee, Jong-Nam;Jin, Yong-Ik;Byun, Myung-Ok;Kim, Dool-Yi;Kim, Myeong-Jun
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.154-162
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to evaluate agronomic characteristics such as growth, quality, and yields of StMyb1R-1 transgenic potato and also to obtain the basic data for establishing assessment guidelines of transgenic potato. Three transgenic lines (Myb 1, Myb 2, and Myb 8) were cultivated under conventional irrigation, drought condition, and severe drought condition and were analyzed by comparing with wild type, non-transgenic cv. Superior. Myb 2 showed a different flower color from wild type and Myb 1 had much bigger secondary leaflets than wild type. Myb 1 and Myb 2 showed higher $P_2O_5$ content in both top and root zone and longer shaped tubers than wild type. In yield factors, transgenic lines had more tubers than wild type, however their yield decreases were severe because of the poor enlargement of tuber under water deficit condition. This tendency was noticeable in Myb 1 and Myb 2. In TR ratio, chlorophyll content, dry matter rate, and relative water content, there were no big differences between transgenic lines and wild type. Meanwhile, in phenotype, growth, quality, and yield factors, substantial equivalent was confirmed between Myb 8 and wild type. Then, Myb 8 showed the highest marketable tuber yield under conventional irrigation, while showed lower level than wild type under water deficit. Judged by this result, the enhancing droughttolerance by StMyb1R-1 gene might actually not mean the enhancement of photosynthesis or starch accumulation in tuber and, furthermore, not the yield improvement. More detailed research will be required to accurately understand the relationship between StMyb1R-1 and yield factors.

Habitat preference of wild boar (Sus scrofa) for feeding in cool-temperate forests

  • Kim, Youngjin;Cho, Soyeon;Choung, Yeonsook
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.297-304
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    • 2019
  • Background: The growing wild boar population has become a social issue and its feeding characteristics could affect the physical condition and the plant species composition in the South Korean forests. We aimed to reveal the preference of the wild boar on forest type and site condition as feeding grounds in two cool-temperate forested national parks, Odaesan and Seoraksan, in order to provide information to manage the growing population. Results: The 75 plots (53.6%) out of 140 plots were used as feeding grounds by the wild boar, implying a considerably large population. Especially, the observation frequency as feeding ground was the highest in Quercus forests (73.3%), and it was significantly more preferred than deciduous forest type (44.2%) and coniferous forest type (32.4%) (${\chi}^2=17.591$, p < 0.001). Significantly more and deeper pits were found in Quercus forests. Moreover, high elevation and gentle slope ridge were relatively preferred regardless of forest distribution. Conclusions: South Korean forests are growing qualitatively and quantitatively. Particularly, Quercus forest area has increased markedly, while coniferous forest area has decreased. Since the Quercus forest provides rich food sources for the wild boar, the enlargement of this forest type is expected to increase the wild boar population. The forests located at high elevations have high species diversity, and it is expected that these forests will be greatly affected by the increase in the wild boar population as preferred feeding grounds.

Overproduction and Operator DNA-Protein Blotting of R100 Mutant MerR from Shigella flexneri

  • Yoon, Kyung-Pyo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.250-255
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    • 1994
  • Wild-type and four mutant R100 merR genes were cloned and the proteins overproduced under tac promoter control of pKK223-3. His118Ala, Cys117Ser, Cys126Ser, and wild-type MerR were successfully overproduced although amino-terminal 14 amino acids deletion mutant MerR was not successful. The amount of overproduced wild-type MerR protein as well as other mutant MerR was between 15%-20% of the total protein. The protein was able to be purified up to 95% homogeneity. Specific DNA-protein blotting experiments showed that the 95 bp operator containing DNA fragment could bind to Cys126Ser, His118Ala, and wild- type MerR, but not to Cys117Ser. These results were consistent with the previously reported complementation experiment results that His118Ala, Cys126Ser, and wild-type MerR could repress the mer operon but Cys117Ser could not.

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Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Ile91 of Restriction Endonuclease EcoRV: Dramatic Consequences on the Activity and the Properties of the Enzyme

  • Moon, Byung-Jo;Vipond, I. Barry;Halford, Stephen E.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.17-21
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    • 1996
  • Ile91 of restriction endonuclease EcoRV, which has not been known to take part directly in catalytic activity, was substituted with Leu by site-directed mutagenesis. The Ile91Leu mutant shows over 1000-fold less activity than the wild type EcoRV under standard reaction condition. The metal ion dependency of the reaction was altered. In contrast to the wild type EcoRV, the mutant prefers $Mn^{2+}$ to $Mn^{2+}$ as the cofactor. In $Mn^{2+}$ buffer the mutant is as active as the wild type enzyme in $Mn^{2+}$ buffer. Like the wild type enzyme, the mutant shows an unspecific binding of DNA in gel shift experiments. In contrast to the wild type enzyme, the mutant did not cleave at noncognate sites of DNA under star condition.

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Spectral Studies of Conformational Change at the Active Site of Mutant O-acetylserine Sulfhydrylase-A (C43S)

  • Park, Joon-Bum;Kim, Sung-Kun;Yoon, Moon-Young
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.32-37
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    • 1996
  • The cysteine 43, potentially important in the activity of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS) from Salmonella typhimurium, has been changed to serine. This mutant enzyme (C43S) has been studied in order to gain insight into the structural basis for the binding of inhibitor, substrate and product. UV-visible spectra of C43S exhibit the same spectral change in the presence of OAS as that observed with wild type enzyme, indicating C43S will form an ${\alpha}$-aminoacrylate Schiff base intermediate. At pH 6.5, however, the deacetylase activity of C43S is much higher than wild type enzyme indicating that cysteine 43 plays a role in stabilizing the ${\alpha}$-aminoacrylate intermediate. The fluoroscence spectrum of C43S exhibits a ratio of emission at 340 to 502 nm of 16.9, reflecting the lower fluorescence of PLP and indicating that the orientation of cofactor and tryptophan are different from that of the wild type enzyme. The emission spectrum of C43S in the presence of OAS gives two maxima at 340 and 535 nm. The 535 nm emission is attributed to the fluoroscence of the ${\alpha}$-aminoacrylate intermediate. The visible circular dichroic spectrum was similar to wild type enzyme, but the negative effect observed at 530~550 nm and the molar ellipicity values for the mutant are decreased by about 50% compared to wild type enzyme. The circular dichroic and fluoroscence studies suggest binding of the cofactor is less asymmetric in C43S than in the wild type enzyme.

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Symbiotic Effectiveness of Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 in Supernodulating Soybean Mutant SS2-2

  • Lestari Puji;Van Kyujung;Kim Moon Young;Lee Suk-Ha
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.125-130
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    • 2005
  • In the absence of exogeneous nitrogen supply, evaluation of a symbiosis effectiveness of Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 in a supernodulating soybean mutant, SS2-2, its wild type, Sinpaldalkong 2, and control genotype, Jangyeobkong, was conducted in this study. Nodules in SS2-2 were initially white and similar to its wild type, Sinpaldalkong 2. At the late stage, the wild type nodules became dark pinkish by maturation, by contrast, mature nodules in SS2-2 remained light green to pinkish, indicating a lack of leghemoglobin. Tap root length was short in nodulated symbiotic SS2-2 than that of its wild type and the control genotype. Nodulated root length and nodule density on root length were significantly increased by B. japonicum inoculation, but no significant increase was observed on root length and percentage of nodulation to total root length. Regardless of Bradyrhizobium inoculation, SS2-2 showed higher nodule dry weight and higher acetylene reduction activity (ARA) when compared with its wild type and the control genotype. Inoculation of B. japonicum leaded the increase of ARA in 47 days after planting (DAP), in part because of nodule development. Supernodulating mutant, SS2-2, less responded to B. japonicum induction in terms of nitrogen fixation and nodulation characteristics than its wild type. Thus, interaction of supernodulating soybean mutant with Bradyrhizobium had less symbiotically associated response than normal nodulating soybean.