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Changes in the Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Burdock (Arctium lappa) During Repeated Steaming and Drying Procedures

증건 횟수에 따른 우엉의 이화학적 변화 및 관능적 특성 연구

  • Lee, GeumYang (Department of Food and Nutrition.Research Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University) ;
  • Son, YangJu (Department of Food and Nutrition.Research Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University) ;
  • Jeon, YuHo (Department of Food and Nutrition.Research Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kang, HeeJin (Department of Food and Nutrition, Myongji University) ;
  • Hwang, InKyeoung (Department of Food and Nutrition.Research Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University)
  • 이금양 (서울대학교 생활과학대학 식품영양학과.생활과학연구소) ;
  • 손양주 (서울대학교 생활과학대학 식품영양학과.생활과학연구소) ;
  • 전유호 (서울대학교 생활과학대학 식품영양학과.생활과학연구소) ;
  • 강희진 (명지대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 황인경 (서울대학교 생활과학대학 식품영양학과.생활과학연구소)
  • Received : 2014.12.15
  • Accepted : 2015.04.17
  • Published : 2015.06.30

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate changes in the physicochemical, antioxidant, and sensory properties of burdock during 9 repeated rounds of steaming ($90^{\circ}C$, 3 h) and drying ($60^{\circ}C$, 20 h) procedures. The moisture content decreased from 81.95% to 7.64% as the process was repeated. Fresh burdock showed the highest total sugar content, with 518.35 mg/g of soluble sugar, 86% being inulin. The reducing sugar content was the greatest (377.00 mg/g) in burdock that had been processed 3 times. The brown color continuously intensified, reaching its peak at 7 rounds of processing, and then weakened. Crude saponin content was the highest (6.17%) after the 5th processing. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP) were the highest at the 3rd and 5th procedures, respectively. Repeated processing weakened the grass and root odors and the bitter, astringent, and metallic tastes, whereas it strengthened the sweet and savory odors, caramel flavor, and richness.

우엉은 다양한 생리활성을 가지고 있으며 가격이 저렴하고 재배가 쉬운 특징이 있어 각광받고 있으나, 아직은 가공 제품에 대한 연구가 활발하지 않은 실정이다. 우엉과 같은 근채류의 일종인 인삼, 도라지, 더덕 등이 증숙 및 건조과정 의해 생리활성 성분이 증가된다는 보고가 있으므로, 본 연구에서는 증건 공정을 우엉에 적용하여 특성을 분석함으로써, 우엉의 활용을 증대시키고자 하였다. 증건 우엉을 제조하기 위하여 증숙(3 h, $90-95^{\circ}C$)과 열풍건조(20 h, $60^{\circ}C$)를 9회 반복 수행하여 시료를 제조하였으며, 이화학적 특성, 항산화 활성 및 관능적 특성 변화를 분석하였다. 수분 함량(wet basis)의 경우, 81.95%의 함량을 보였으며, 증건함에 따라 감소하여 최종적으로 7.64%의 함량을 보였다. 일반성분 함량을 건량으로 환산한 결과, 생 우엉의 탄수화물 함량은 85.58%이었으며, 이후 점차 감소하여 9회 증건 시 77.80%의 함량을 보였다. 한편, 조섬유의 경우 0회 증건시 10.14%의 함량에서 가공함에 따라 점차 증가하여 최종 9회 증건한 우엉에서 26.22%의 조섬유 함량을 나타내었다. 조단백질의 함량은 초기 8.53%에서 점차 증가하여 9회 증건 우엉에서 16.69%의 함량을 보였으며, 조지방 역시 증건과정을 거침에 따라 증가하여 0회 증건 시 0.74%에서 9회 증건 시 1.72%의 조지방 함량을 나타내었다. 반면 회분 함량은 0회 증건 시 5.16%에서 9회 증건 시 3.79%로 감소하였다. 추출 수율은 생 우엉에서 68.95%이였으나 이후 감소하여 9회 증건 우엉에서 27.10%를 나타내었다. 총 수용성 당, 환원당, 이눌린 함량을 측정한 결과, 생 우엉은 총 수용성 당의 약 86%가 이눌린으로 구성되어 있었고, 증건 과정을 거침에 따라 열작용에 의해 이눌린이 분해되고 환원당이 생성되어 4-9회 증건 시료에서 총 수용성 당의 81-96%가 환원당인 것으로 확인되었다. 분말색도의 경우, 명도는 초기 84.49에서 9회 증건 처리 시 39.41로 점차 감소하였으며, 적색도와 황색도는 4회 증건 처리 시까지 증가한 후 감소하였다. 열수추출물의 갈색도는 7회 증건 처리 시까지 증가한 후 감소하는 경향을 보였다. 조사포닌은 5회 증건 시료에서 6.17%의 최대 함량을 보였으며, 총 폴리페놀은 3, 5회 증건 처리 시료에서 약 18-19 mg GAE/g의 가장 높은 함량을 나타내었다. 이와 유사하게 DPPH, ABTS 자유라디칼 소거능과 FRAP활성에서도 3, 5회 증건 시료에서 높은 항산화 활성을 보였다. 관능평가 결과 생 우엉 및 초기 증건 시료에서 풋내, 뿌리채소 냄새, 쓴맛, 떫은, 금속성의 특성이 있었으나, 이후 증건 횟수가 증가함에 따라 감소하였고, 반면에 단 냄새, 구수한 냄새, 캐러멜 향미 및 바디감의 특성 정도가 높아진 것을 확인하였다. 실험결과를 종합해 보았을 때, 생 우엉의 경우 이눌린의 생리활성 효과가 기대되며, 3-5회 증건한 우엉에서는 총 폴리페놀 및 사포닌 함량의 증가로 인한 높은 항산화 활성과 단맛을 기대 할 수 있을 것으로 사료된다. 이번 연구를 통해 우엉 증건 횟수에 따른 이화학적 특성 변화 및 관능적 특성을 확인하였으며, 우엉의 이용 가능성을 증진 시킬 수 있는 기초 자료가 될 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.

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