A Review on the Hazards of Flavoring Chemicals in Coffee Roasting Proces

커피 로스팅 공정에서 발생되는 향기물질의 유해성 고찰 및 노동자 건강보호 방안

  • Rim, Kyung-Taek (Chemicals Research Bureau, Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, KOSHA)
  • 임경택 (안전보건공단 산업안전보건연구원 산업화학연구실)
  • Received : 2019.06.07
  • Accepted : 2019.06.25
  • Published : 2019.06.30


Objectives: This study was based on the occurrence of a coffee roasting process-related disorder(bronchiolitis obliterans; published by NIOSH in the US) among workers exposed to chemicals called diacetyl in a coffee processing facility. Flavorings added to coffee contain diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, all of which are subject to exposure in a number of food manufacturing processes, including coffee roasting, grinding, and packaging. Therefore, this study aims to review the toxicity to workers related to food processing and food additive manufacturing to prevent occupational diseases. Methods: We surveyed the related literature, domestic and international references, and the status of relevant domestic and foreign professional organizations. The present situation of workers was investigated by reviewing literature on the safety and health of workers in the coffee roasting process using domestic and foreign literature and presentations. Expert advisory opinions were reflected, and experts were consulted by participating in domestic and overseas academic conferences. Results: Most of the fragrance materials for coffee were harmful and hazardous substances according to the GHS classification, and research was carried out through a second external consultation. A literature review on the measurement of air pollutant emissions from coffee roasters and the estimation of air pollutant emissions during coffee roasting examined the characteristics of pollutants emitted during coffee roasting. Conclusions: Two chemicals identified as causing bronchiolitis obliterans in the coffee roasting process are believed to explain why the disease is difficult to treat. This information can be used effectively in the future prevention of this disease. Future studies should clearly identify the potential for toxicity of alpha-diketones and the bases of OELs in relation to the occurrence of obstructive bronchiolitis, including measurement of various organic compounds and alpha-diketones from ground coffee, as well as various coffee grinds and coffee bean varieties. In particular, it is necessary to clarify the current understanding of the dose-response relationship between alpha-diketone and lung disease in workers involved in coffee roasting.

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Figure 1. Database search results for expression changes of genes related to Diacetyl.

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Figure 2. Database search results for expression changes of genes related to 2,3-Pentanedione.

Table 1. Toxicity values of diacetyl from animal tests

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Table 2. GHS Hazard Classification results of coffee flavoring chemicals*

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Table 3. Occupational exposure limits for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione

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Table 4. Personal exposure limits for compounds sampled in the July 2015 and March 2016 NIOSH surveys*

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Table 5. Function of expression-altering genes associated with diacetyl

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Table 6. Function of expression-altering genes associated with 2,3-Pentanedione

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Table 7. Ventilation considerations in the coffee roasting process

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Table 8. Work management recommendations in the coffee roasting process

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Table 9. Recommended protective equipment for the coffee roasting process

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