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A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Simultaneous Dual-Task Training on Executive Function in Older Adults

동시적 이중과제 훈련이 노인의 실행기능에 미치는 효과: 체계적 고찰 및 메타분석

  • Jeun, Yu-Jin (Dept. of ICT Convergence, The Graduate School, Soonchunhyang University) ;
  • Park, Jin-Hyuck (Dept. of Occupational Therapy, Soonchunhyang University)
  • 전유진 (순천향대학교 대학원 ICT 융합학과) ;
  • 박진혁 (순천향대학교 의료과학대학 작업치료학과)
  • Received : 2020.08.26
  • Accepted : 2020.11.06
  • Published : 2021.08.31

Abstract

Objective : The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of simultaneous dual-task training to assess executive function in older adults. Methods : We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, and RISS databases of publicated studies in the past decade. Seven studies were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Qualitative assessment and meta-analysis were performed for the seven studies. Results : A randomized controlled trial design was used in the selected studies, and PEDro Scores above seven were obtained. The Trial Making Test (TMT) evaluated the effects of dual-task training on executive function in four studies. The Color Trail Test (CTT) was used in two studies, and Stroop test was used in three studies. The effect size for total executive function was 0.38, which was small. The effect sizes for TMT and CTT were 0.37. Stroop Test was 0.34, demonstrating that their effect sizes were also small. Only significant effects in total executive function, TMT, and CTT showed significant effects (all p<0.05). Conclusion : This study confirmed that dual-task training was effective in improving executive function in older adults. To improve the effectiveness of dual-task training, the difficulty of the dual-task training should be considered. It is also necessary to implement assessments that can evaluate performance under dual-task conditions as well as conventional test tools for executive function. In the future, dual-task training could be used as an appropriate intervention for executive function in older adults to delay the onset of dementia.

목적 : 본 연구는 노인을 대상으로 한 동시적 이중과제 훈련을 적용하였을 때 실행기능의 효과를 알아본 연구를 분석하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 연구방법 : PubMed, EMBASE, CoChrane, Web of Science, RISS를 이용하여 지난 10년간 출판된 논문을 검색하였고, 선정 및 배제 기준을 통해 최종 7편의 논문을 선정하였다. 선정 논문에 대한 PEDro 질적평가와 메타분석을 시행하였다. 결과 : 선정된 7편의 논문은 모두 무작위 대조군 설계로, PEDro Scale 7점 이상의 높은 편에 속하였다. 이중과제 훈련의 실행기능 효과를 보기 위한 평가도구로 4편의 문헌에서 선로잇기검사(Trail Making Test)를 사용하였고, 2편에서 색선로잇기검사(Color Trail Test)를 사용하였으며, 3편에서 스트룹검사(Stroop test)를 사용하였다. 메타분석을 실시한 결과 전체적인 실행기능의 향상은 0.38로 작은효과크기를 보였으며, 선로잇기검사와 색선로잇기검사는 0.37, 스트룹검사는 0.34로 작은효과크기를 보였다. 전체적인 실행기능 효과와 선로잇기검사, 색선로잇기검사의 효과크기만 통계학적으로 유의하였다(p<0.05). 결론 : 본 연구를 통해 이중과제 훈련이 노인의 실행기능 향상에 효과적임을 확인하였지만, 이중과제 훈련의 효과를 높이기 위해서는 훈련의 난이도 설정이 중요하며, 실행기능을 평가하는 다양한 평가도구와 실제 이중과제 조건에서의 수행도를 평가하는 평가도 동시에 이루어져야 함을 알 수 있었다. 이는 향후, 노인들의 실행기능 향상 훈련을 하는데 적절한 중재방법으로 사용될 수 있으며, 치매 발현을 늦추는데 도움이 될 것이라 사료된다.

Keywords

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