• Title, Summary, Keyword: 자아존중감

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Factors Influencing the Meaning of Life for Middle-aged Women (중년여성의 삶의 의미와 영향요인)

  • Park, Geum-Ja
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.232-243
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing the meaning of life for middle-aged women. The subjects for the study were 190 middle-aged women who live in Busan. Data were collected from May 25 to June 20, 1999. The instruments for this study were as follows : the meaning of life scale developed by Jung D. R(1978) ; the self-esteem scale developed by Ro, E. Y, Kwon, J. H.(1997) ; the volunteer activity scale developed by Park G. J.(1999), the marital satisfaction scale developed by Choi G. Y.(1999) ; and the health status scale developed by Kim S. Y. (1991). SPSS PC+ was utilized for data analysis. Data were analysed according to frequency and percentage, mean and standard deviation, t-test, ANOVA, Sheffe' s test and Pearson' s correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression. The reliability of the tools was tested by Cronbach's $\alpha$ : and it showed reliability scores of 0.88(for the meaning of life tool), 0.81(for the self-esteem tool), 0.94(for the marital satisfaction tool) and 0.78(for the health status tool). The results were as follows: 1) The scores showed that middle-aged women had a moderate level of meaning of life, with a mean of 30.31 and standard deviation of 6.24 (with values ranging from 12.00 to 48.00). The scores showed that middle-aged women had a moderate levels of self-esteem, with a mean of 28.92 and standard deviation of 4.67 (with values ranging from 10.00 to 40.00). The scores showed that middle-aged women had a very low level of volunteer activity, with a mean of 0.87 and standard deviation of 0.93(with values ranging from 0.00 to 1.00). The scores showed that middle-aged women had a moderate level of satisfaction in their marriages, with a mean of 31.99 and standard deviation of 7.84(with values ranging from 12.00 to 48.00). The scores showed that middle-aged women had a moderate level of health status, with a mean of 6.63 and standard deviation of 1.57(with values ranging from 3.00 to 9.00). 2) There was a statistically significant difference of the meaning of life of middle-aged women according to their religion(F=8.930, p=.000), christian ($31.94{\pm}5.96$) had more meaning th life than buddhists ($28.40{\pm}6.23$). 3) There was a statistically significant correlations between the subject' s self-esteem and the her meaning of life(r=0.477, p=0.000), the subject' s level of volunteer activity and meaning of life(r=.428, p=.000), her level of marital satisfaction and meaning of life(r=.417, p=.000), and her level of health status and meaning of life(r=.261, p=.000) among these middle-aged women. 4) Self- esteem was the highest factor influencing the level of meaning of life in middle-aged women. 40.0% of the total variance of levels of meaning of life by was dependent on self-esteem, volunteer activity, marital satisfaction and health status. In conclusion, the higher the self-esteem and levels of volunteer activity, marital satisfaction, and health status of middle-aged women, the higher the meaning of life for them. Therefore, it is necessary to elevate levels of the self-esteem and volunteer activity, marital satisfaction and health status in order to help middle-aged women have more meaning of life.

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A Structural Model for Depression in Middle-aged Women (중년여성의 우울 구조모형)

  • Park, Geum-Ja;Lee, Kyung-Hye
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.69-84
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to develope and test the structural model for depression in middle-aged women. A hypothetical model was constructed on the basis of previous studies and a review of literatures. The conceptual framework was built around eight constructs. Exogenous variables included in this model were volunteer activity, health status & economic status. Endogenous variables were meaning of life, self-esteem, perceived life stress & depression. Empirical data for testing the hypothetical model was collected using a self-report questionnaire from 216 middle-aged women in Pusan City. The Data was collected from May to June, 1999. Reliability of the seven instruments tested with Cronbach's alpha was ranged from .86-.94. For the data analysis, SPSS 7.5 WIN Program and LISREL 8.12 WIN Program were used for descriptive statistics and covariance structural analysis. The results of covariance structure analysis were as follows: 1. The hypothetical model showed a good fit with the empirical data. [$x^2$/df=2.87(p=.72), GFI=1.00, AGFI=.98, RMSR=.025, NFI=.99, standardized residuals ($-1.44{\sim}1.44$)]. 2. To heighten for the parsimony and fitness of the model, a modified model was constructed by deleting according to the criteria of statistical significance and meaning. 3. The modified model also showed a good fit with the data. [$x^2$=5.26(01=7,p=.63), GFI=.99, AGFl=.97, RMSR=.025, NFI=.99, standardized reslduals ($-1.50{\sim}1.45$)] Results of the testing of the hypothesis were as follows : 1. Self-esteem(${\beta}_{42}$=-.48, t=-5.64) had a negative and perceived life stress(${\beta}_{43}$=.20, t=3.21)had a positive direct effect on depression. Meaning of life had a negative direct(${\beta}_{41}$=-.17, t=-2.19) and a negative indirect effect through self-esteem on depression. Volunteer activity had a negative indirect effect through meaning of life, meaning of life and self-esteem on depression. Health status had a negative direct and a negative indirect effect through meaning of life, meaning of life and self-esteem on depression. Economic status had a negative indirect effect through perceived life stress on depression. Self-esteem was the most significant variable. 2. Volunteer activity(${\gamma}_{11}$=.43, t=6.78) and health status(${\gamma}_{12}$=.35, t=4.88) had positive direct effect on meaning of life. 3. Meaning of life(${\beta}_{21}$=.50, t=6.53) had a positive direct effect on self-esteem. Volunteer activity had a positive indirect effect through meaning of life on self-esteem. Health status had a positive direct(${\gamma}_{22}$=.18, t=2.23) and a indirect effect through meaning of life on self-esteem. Meaning of life was the most significant variable. 4. Economic status (${\gamma}_{33}$=-.44, t값=-6.01) had a positive direct effect on perceived life stress. The results of this study showed that self-esteem had the most significant direct effect on depression. Meaning of life and health status had significant direct effect on this self-esteem. Volunteer activity and health status had direct effect on meaning of life. The results of this study suggested that there is a need to develope intervention to promote degree of self-esteem and alleviate degree of depression in middle-aged women.

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A Study on the effect of Friend-praise activity program of Elementary students for Self-esteem and Personal Relationship (초등학생의 또래 칭찬활동 프로그램이 자아존중감 및 대인관계에 미치는 효과)

  • Oh, Eun-Ju
    • The Korean Journal of Elementary Counseling
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.159-184
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    • 2006
  • Lately, the rapid social and family system change, the entrance examination-centered circumstance in education have a negative influence not only on making up the affirmative self-esteem but also on building up the personal relationship through mutual communication with friends of the same age. Making children adapt well to school life and develop a good relationship in the class is an important subject in educational field. Thus, various school activities should offer lots of opportunities to increase their affirmative self-esteem and more specified performance-centered programs are required toform a harmonious relationship among parties of students. The purpose of this study is to improve an affirmative self-esteern and a desirable personal relationship of children through developing friend-praise program and adapting it to children. Based on the above purpose, the following subjects for this study 'are suggested. Firstly, is the friend-praise program effective in forming an affirmative self-esteem of elementary students? Secondly, is the friend-praise program successful in improving a desirable personal relationship in an elementary school? In addition, two hypotheses of study are decided on the basis of theoretical background and the former study. Hypothesis 1. The friend-praise program will have a meaningful effect on improving an affirmative self-esteem. Hypothesis 2. The friend-praise program will have a meaningful effect on improving a desirable personal relationship. In order to improve the above hypotheses, the experiment was carried out with two classes on the fourth grade in M elementary school in Wonju with being divided into one experimental group and the other comparative group. The friend-praise program which was adapted to the experimental group was composed with four steps as 'introduction', 'preparation', 'operation' and 'closing'. This program which has twelve categories was executed once or twice in a week and each class was continued for forty or sixty minutes. Contrastively, comparative group had no application of the main program. For the purpose of proving the hypotheses after adapting the program to students, I have executed both self-esteem test and personal relationship test. The tests were performed with using SPSS/Windows V10.0 and the statistic was conducted through independant sample t-test for the difference between groups and contrastive sample t-test for the individual difference in each group. The results of this study can be summarized like the followings: Firstly, from the result of previous and after tests, there was no meaningful change in the comparative group, but the experimental group showed meaningful difference in all categories of self-esteem(t=-4.496, p=.000). Especially, the general self-esteem(t=-3.216, p=.003), social self-esteem(t=-2.680, p=.012), homely self-esteem(t=-3.732, p=.001), and school self-esteem(t=-3.902, p=.000) showed a meaningful difference. At the same time, the experimental group also showed meaningful difference with the comparative group in self-esteem(t=-4.758, p=.000). Especially, the general self-esteem(t=2.581, p=.017), social self-esteem(t=3.160, p=.003), homely self-esteem(t=4.283, p=.000), and school self-esteem(t=4.110, p=.000) showed a meaningful difference. As a result of this experiment, the friend-praise program will have a meaningful effect on improving an affirmative self-esteem was proved. Secondly, there was no meaningful change in the comparative group, but the experimental group showed meaningful difference in all categories of personal relationship(t=-4.131, p=.000). Specifically, satisfaction(t=-2.113, p=.045), communication(t=-3.381, p=.002), confidence(t=-3.517, p=.001), intimacy(t=-3.958, p=.000), sensibility(t=-2.955, p=.006), openness(t=-4.318, p=.000) and interest(t=-2.941, p=.000) showed a meaningful difference. In the same instant, the experimental group also showed meaningful difference with the comparative group in all categories of personal relationship(t=3.897, p=.000). Especially, satisfaction(t=2.257, p=.003), communication(t=3.527, p=.001), confidence(t=3.704, p=.001), intimacy(t=3.904, p=.000), sensibility (t=4.382, p=.000), openness(t=2.648, p=.013) and interest(t=2.944, p=.006) showed a meaningful difference. Accordingly, the friend-praise program will have a meaningful effect on improving a desirable personal relationship was proved. Judging from all these results, we should provide primary students with various opportunities to take part in active programs which help them to set up their righteous sense of value, to solve their own problems and to develop their potentials. Consequently, many kinds of practice-centered program like the friend-praise program should be developed more systematically and teachers should apply all those programs to students according to their individual level and developmental stage.

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A Study of Effects of Psychosocial Factors and Quality of Life on Functional Dyspepsia in Firefighters (소방관에서 기능성 소화불량에 대한 심리사회적 요인의 영향 및 삶의 질에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Seung-Ho;Ryu, Han-Seung;Choi, Suck-Chei;Lee, Hye-Jin;Lee, Sang-Yeol
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.66-73
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of psychosocial factors related to functional dyspepsia(FD) and their effects on quality of life(QOL) in firefighters. Methods : This study examined data collected from 1,217 firefighters. We measured psychological symptoms by Patient Health Questionnaire-9(PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire(GAD-7), Korean Occupational Stress Scale(KOSS), Ways of Coping checklist(WCCL), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale(RSES) and World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale abbreviated version(WHOQOL-BREF). Chi-square test, independent t-test, Pearson's correlation test, logistic regression analysis, and hierarchical regression analysis were used as statistical analysis methods. Results : For the group with FD, the male participants showed significantly higher frequency(p=0.006) compared to the female participants. The group with FD had higher scores for depressive symptoms(p<.001), anxiety (p<.001), and occupational stress(p<.001), and did lower scores for self-esteem(p=.008), quality of life(p<.001) than those without FD. The FD risk was higher in the following KOSS subcategories: job demand(OR 1.94, 95% CI : 1.29-2.93), lack of reward(OR 2.47, 95% CI : 1.61-3.81), and occupational climate(OR 1.51, 95% CI : 1.01-2.24). In the hierarchical regression analysis, QOL was best predicted by depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and occupational stress. Three predictive variables above accounts for 42.0% variance explained of total variance. Conclusions : The psychosocial factors showed significant effects on FD, and predictive variables for QOL were identified based on regression analysis. The results suggest that the psychiatric approach should be accompanied with medical approach in future FD assessment.

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Effectiveness of parenting education program for adolescents (청소년 대상 예비부모교육 프로그램 효과성 연구)

  • Jun, Mikyung;Lee, Eun Joo;Yu, Nan Sook;Wang, Seok-Soon;Choi, Saeeun
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.31-47
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of parenting education program for adolescents. Parenting education program for adolescents was developed and implemented at three secondary schools in Seoul, Chungcheong province, and Gwangju metropolitan city with focus on the following topics respectively 'parent-child communication', 'understanding fatherhood', and 'preparation for parenting based on self-understanding'. Data were collected from self-reported inventory and 97 data copies for pre- and post tests were used for analyses. Data were analyzed for frequency, percentage, paired t-test and One way ANOVA using SPSS/PC 21.0 program. The results from mean comparison of pre- and post tests were as follows. First, perception of necessity for parenting education and needs for including parenting program into regular secondary school curriculum increased statistically, which means that parenting program must be implemented regularly to meet the demands of adolescents for parenting program. Second, the main reason for not having children was 'burden for rearing children', which means that enough child-care skill and information need to be included. Third, the mean difference between pre- and post tests regarding perception of performing parents' roles was statistically significant, which means that the participants' perception of performing parents' roles became positive. Fourth, the 32 high school students participating in parenting education of 'understanding fatherhood' did not have significant difference in gender role. The 29 middle school students participating in parenting education of 'parent-child communication' had significant difference in perception of communication. The 36 high school students participating in parenting education of 'preparation for parenting based on self-understanding' had significant difference in self-esteem. This results identified the effectiveness of parenting education for adolescents. Therefore, Home Economics subject must be selected to give the opportunity of parenting education to high school students.

Health-Promoting Behavior and Quality of Life among Community-Dwelling, Middle-Aged Women: A Comparative Study between Overweight and Normal-Weight Groups (지역사회 거주 중년 여성 집단에서 건강증진 행위와 삶의 질: 과체중 집단과 정상체중 집단 간 비교)

  • Yang, Hwa-Mi;Choo, Jina;Kim, Hye-Jin
    • Korean journal of health promotion
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.159-168
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    • 2018
  • Background: Strategically improving health-related quality of life (HRQOL) should be discussed among overweight middle-aged women who are vulnerable to low HRQOL. We examined firstly if overweight middle-aged women would have significantly lower levels of HRQOL and health-promoting behaviors than normal-weight middle-aged women, and to examine secondly if health-promoting behaviors would be significantly associated with generic and obesity-specific HRQOLs within the overweight middle-aged women. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, comparative study. Participants were 119 women aged 30-49 years who were recruited from a community in Seoul, South Korea; 63 women for the overweight group who were recruited from a baseline sample of the Community-Based Heart and Weight Management Trial, while 56 for the normal-weight group who were recruited separetely. Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP II), World Health Organization Quality of Life-brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) of a generic HRQOL measure, and Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite) of an obesity-specific HRQOL measure were used. Results: Compared to the normal-weight group, the overweight group showed significantly lower scores of total WHOQOL-BREF as well as some HPLP II subscales including stress management (P=0.029). Among the HPLP II subscales, stress management was significantly and positively associated with total WHOQOL-BREF (${\beta}=1.58$, P=0.003) and self-esteem IWQOL-Lite (${\beta}=11.58$, P=0.034) among the overweight group. Conclusions: Among middle-aged overweight women, low levels of health-promoting behavior for stress management were shown, which should be strategically increased for improving their generic and obesity-specific HRQOLs.

Fast Join Mechanism that considers the switching of the tree in Overlay Multicast (오버레이 멀티캐스팅에서 트리의 스위칭을 고려한 빠른 멤버 가입 방안에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Sung-Yean;Rho, Kyung-Taeg;Park, Myong-Soon
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartC
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    • v.10C no.5
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    • pp.625-634
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    • 2003
  • More than a decade after its initial proposal, deployment of IP Multicast has been limited due to the problem of traffic control in multicast routing, multicast address allocation in global internet, reliable multicast transport techniques etc. Lately, according to increase of multicast application service such as internet broadcast, real time security information service etc., overlay multicast is developed as a new internet multicast technology. In this paper, we describe an overlay multicast protocol and propose fast join mechanism that considers switching of the tree. To find a potential parent, an existing search algorithm descends the tree from the root by one level at a time, and it causes long joining latency. Also, it is try to select the nearest node as a potential parent. However, it can't select the nearest node by the degree limit of the node. As a result, the generated tree has low efficiency. To reduce long joining latency and improve the efficiency of the tree, we propose searching two levels of the tree at a time. This method forwards joining request message to own children node. So, at ordinary times, there is no overhead to keep the tree. But the joining request came, the increasing number of searching messages will reduce a long joining latency. Also searching more nodes will be helpful to construct more efficient trees. In order to evaluate the performance of our fast join mechanism, we measure the metrics such as the search latency and the number of searched node and the number of switching by the number of members and degree limit. The simulation results show that the performance of our mechanism is superior to that of the existing mechanism.

Comparison of Growth Characteristics, Forage Productivity and Quality between Italian Ryegrass and Synthetics Derived from Interspecific and Intergeneric Hybrids and Ecotypes (이탈리안 라이그라스와 종.속간 잡종 및 생태형 유래 합성종간의 생육특성, 수량성 및 사료가치 비교)

  • Choi, G.J.;Lim, Y.W.;Lim, Y.C.;Sung, B.R.;Kim, M.J.;Kim, K.Y.;Park, G.J.;Kim, S.R.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.265-272
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    • 2002
  • Forage breeding laboratory of National Livestock Research Institute, R.D.A. has made interspecific hybrids of Lolium multiflorum $\times$ L. pratensis and intergeneric hybrids of Lolium $\times$ Festuca since 1984, and has collected ecotypes of Italian ryegrass since 1991. Growth characteristics of these hybrids and ecotypes were researched, and then these clone lines were named. Among these clone lines, the several clones that have polen fertility, high cold-tolerance, and similar heading time were used for making synthetics, Naehan 6, 7, 8, 9, with polycrossing method in 1997. Field experiments were carried out to compare the mophological and agronomical characteristics and forage productivity and quality of the synthetics with those of Italian ryegrass varieties, Barmultra and Hwasan 101. in Suwon and Yonchun from 1999 to 2000. Heading time of the synthetics were 22th to 24th May that belong to late-mature types to be similar to that of Barmultra and Hwasan 101 in Suwon. The synthetics were 101 to 106 c3n in plant length, medium or thick in thickness of stem, dark peen in leaf color, broad and long in flag leaf, strong in lodging resistance, and excellent in regrowth. Winter survivals of the synthetics were no different from that of Barmultra or Hwasan 101 in Suwon, but better than that of Barmultra or Hwasan 101 in Yonchun where was -10 to -12$^{\circ}C$ of minimum average air temperature in January or February. Dry matter(DM) yields of the synthetics were similar to DM 8,238kg per ha of Barmultra in Suwon, but in Yonchun, were more 7 to 13% than DM 7,291kg per ha of Barmultra. Forage qualities, IVDMD, ADF, NDF and TDN of the synthetics were lower than those of Hwasan 101, but higher than those of Barmultra.

The Incidence and Distribution of Viral Diseases in Barley Fields in Korea (국내 맥류재배지의 바이러스병 발생과 분포)

  • Park, Jong-Chul;Seo, Jae-Hwan;Choi, Min-Kyung;Lee, Kui-Jae;Kim, Hyung-Moo
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.188-193
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    • 2004
  • The symptom expressions such as yellowish and mosaic spots in overwintering barley have been considered to be a damage by cold or water. However, it had revealed that the symptom expressions were caused by viruses throughout three year nationwide surveys. Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV), Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), and Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) was detected in 2001-2003 and Barley yellow dwarf virus-MA V (BYDV -MA V) from field samples collected on March in 2003. The results of investigation showed that the incidence of BaYMV was more than 70% and that of BaMMV and SBWMV was 15.7-37.4% and 0.7-10.1 % in three year surveys, respectively. The incidence of BYDV-MAV was approximately 1 % in 2003 only. The distribution of BaYMV was relatively uniform throughout barley fields in Korea, but the incidence of the virus in Gyunggi Province was as low as 19% compared to 65-85% in the rest of regions. On the other hand, 70% of BaMMV was found to be in the west south regions of Korea, Jeonbuk and Jeonnam Provinces. Taken together, both BaYMV and BaMMV were thought to be dominant casual agents in overwintering barley by either single or mixed infections. Previous survey data for BaYMV from 1994 to 1996 indicated that the incidence of the virus was approximately 40% in Jeonbuk, Jeonnam, and Gyungnam Provinces. Thus, comparing with the results from the recent nationwide survey, the incidence of BaYMV had been rapidly increasing in overwintering barley fields in the southern part of Korea.

Factors Associated with Care Burden among Family Caregivers of Terminally Ill Cancer Patients (말기암환자 가족 간병인의 간병 부담과 관련된 요인)

  • Lee, Jee Hye;Park, Hyun Kyung;Hwang, In Cheol;Kim, Hyo Min;Koh, Su-Jin;Kim, Young Sung;Lee, Yong Joo;Choi, Youn Seon;Hwang, Sun Wook;Ahn, Hong Yup
    • Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: It is important to alleviate care burden for terminal cancer patients and their families. This study investigated the factors associated with care burden among family caregivers (FCs) of terminally ill cancer patients. Methods: We analyzed data from 289 FCs of terminal cancer patients who were admitted to palliative care units of seven medical centers in Korea. Care burden was assessed using the Korean version of Caregiver Reaction Assessment (CRA) scale which comprises five domains. A multivariate logistic regression model with stepwise variable selection was used to identify factors associated with care burden. Results: Diverse associating factors were identified in each CRA domain. Emotional factors had broad influence on care burden. FCs with emotional distress were more likely to experience changes to their daily routine (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 2.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29~5.02), lack of family support (aOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.04~4.97) and health issues (aOR, 5.44; 2.50~11.88). Family functionality clearly reflected a lack of support, and severe family dysfunction was linked to financial issues as well. FCs without religion or comorbid conditions felt more burdened. The caregiving duration and daily caregiving hours significantly predicted FCs' lifestyle changes and physical burden. FCs who were employed, had weak social support or could not visit frequently, had a low self-esteem. Conclusion: This study indicates that it is helpful to understand FCs' emotional status and family functions to assess their care burden. Thus, efforts are needed to lessen their financial burden through social support systems.