• Title, Summary, Keyword: CDMA

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Optical thyristor operating at 1.55 μm (장파장에서 동작하는 Optical Thyristor)

  • Kim, Doo-Gun;Kim, Hyung-Soo;Jung, Sung-Jae;Choi, Young-Wan;Lee, Seok;Woo, Deok-Ha;Jhon, Young-Min;Yu, Byung-Geel
    • Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.146-150
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    • 2002
  • 1.55${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ PnpN optical thyristor as a smart optical switch has potential applications in advanced optical communication systems. PnpP optical thyristors operating at 1.55${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ are proposed and fabricated for the first time. In the optical thyristors, we employ InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well (MQW) for the active n- and p-layers. The thyristors show sufficiently nonlinear s-shape I-V characteristics and spontaneous emission. In the OFF-state, the device has a high-impedance up to switching voltage of 4.03(V). On the other hand, it has low-impedance and emits spontaneous light as a light-emitting diode in the ON-state voltage of 1.77(V), and switching voltage is changed under several light input conditions. It can be used as a header processor in optical asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), as a hard limiter in optical code division multiple access (CDMA) and as a wavelength converter in optical WDM systems.

Performance Analysis of the Multi-User Detector Employing a Hybrid Interference Cancellation Scheme in a WCDMA System (WCDMA 시스템에서 Hybrid Interference Cancellation 기법을 적용한 다중사용자 검파기의 성능분석)

  • 서정욱;오창헌;장은영;조성준
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.221-227
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    • 2002
  • In this paper, in order to know the effect of the interference, we have analyzed the BER (Bit Error Rate) performance of the MUD(Multi-User Detector) employing HIC(Hybrid Interference Cancellation) scheme for the asynchronous WCDMA system based on 3GPP(3rd Generation Partnership Project) Spec. through the In this paper, in order to know the effect of the interference, we have analyzed the BER (Bit Error Rate) performance of the MUD(Multi-User Detector) employing HIC(Hybrid Interference Cancellation) scheme for the asynchronous WCDMA system based on 3GPP(3rd Generation Partnership Project) Spec. through the computer simulation. we have assumed Rayleigh fading channel. And we have compared its BER performance with SIC's(Successive Interference Cancellation) and with PIC's(Parallel Interference Cancellation), which are the representative schemes in the subtractive interference cancellation. From the results, it is shown that PlC or HIC is effective for high data-rate users and SIC of HIC for low data-rate users to eliminate the interference. Regardless of the data rate, it is reasonable to use the HIC structure for WCDMA system to satisfy all of users' services. The reason is that the SIC scheme in front of HIC can guarantee the performance of low power users to cancel the serious interference caused by the high power users, while PIC in the rear of it can guarantee the performance of high power users to cancel the interference caused by the low power users.

A Time Slot Assignment Scheme for Sensor Data Compression (센서 데이터의 압축을 위한 시간 슬롯 할당 기법)

  • Yeo, Myung-Ho;Kim, Hak-Sin;Park, Hyoung-Soon;Yoo, Jae-Soo
    • Journal of KIISE:Computing Practices and Letters
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.846-850
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    • 2009
  • Recently, wireless sensor networks have found their way into a wide variety of applications and systems with vastly varying requirements and characteristics such as environmental monitoring, smart spaces, medical applications, and precision agriculture. The sensor nodes are battery powered. Therefore, the energy is the most precious resource of a wireless sensor network since periodically replacing the battery of the nodes in large scale deployments is infeasible. Energy efficient mechanisms for gathering sensor readings are indispensable to prolong the lifetime of a sensor network as long as possible. There are two energy-efficient approaches to prolong the network lifetime in sensor networks. One is the compression scheme to reduce the size of sensor readings. When the communication conflict is occurred between two sensor nodes, the sender must try to retransmit its reading. The other is the MAC protocol to prevent the communication conflict. In this paper, we propose a novel approaches to reduce the size of the sensor readings in the MAC layer. The proposed scheme compresses sensor readings by allocating the time slots of the TDMA schedule to them dynamically. We also present a mathematical model to predict latency from collecting the sensor readings as the compression ratio is changed. In the simulation result, our proposed scheme reduces the communication cost by about 52% over the existing scheme.

단말기에서의 SDR 기술

  • 김선영;강법주;김창주
    • The Proceeding of the Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.48-57
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    • 1999
  • 안테나 단에서 직접 수신 신호의 디지털화가 이루어지고 그 해당 신호의 처리는 고속 디지털 신호처리기 내에서 소프트웨어로 수행되는 방식을 SWR(Software Radio)이라 한다. 그러나 현재의 기술 수준을 감안하여 보다 현실적인 SDR(Software Defined Radio) 정의가 필요하게 되었다. SDR이란 수신신호의 디지털화가 안테나 이하의 임의의 단(IF단)에서 이루어지는 무선으로 정의된다. 물론 A/D변환기등의 기술이 더욱 발전되면 궁극적으로는 SWR로 진화될 것이다. 그러면 SDR은 왜 필요한 것일까? 현재 사용중인 이동통신 단말기의 단점은 어느 한 표준 또는 방식에 종속되어 언제 어디서나 임의의 시스템에 접속되어 사용하기에는 많은 기술 종속적인 문제 및 제약을 내포하며, 사용방식에 따른 시스템의 유연성이 없고, 상용 서비스 도중에 발생되는 단말기 문제의 해결(recall service)이 어렵고, 많은 기술료를 지불해야 한다는 것이다. 부연하면 CDMA 셀룰라의 경우 퀄컴 등의 특정한 회사에 의해 기술이 폐쇠되어, 정보의 흐름이 자유스럽지 못할 뿐더러, 이로 인해 기술진화가 보다 빠르게 진행되지 못하고, 전세계적으로 많은 새로운 우수 제품의 출연에 제약이 가해진다는 것이다. 따라서 SDR(Software Defined Radion)을 도입, 하드웨어 및 소프트웨어를 개방형 구조(open architecture)로 개발한다면 정보의 흐름을 자유롭게 할 수 있고, 이로 인하여 세계적으로 다양한 신제품의 개발이 촉진되고 결과적으로 전세계 시장이 커지게 되는 일석이조의 효과를 얻을 수 있게 된다. 또한 이 같은 개방형 단말기 개발의 필요성은 최근 시장동향으로 볼 때, 기존의 단말기 회사 입장에서는 새로운 수익 모델이 필요한 시점이고, 또한 2002년경에 판매되는 단말기의 80%정도는 멀티모드타입 단말기일 것으로 예측되는 점, 그리고 금년말까지 100개 회사 이상이 SDR 포럼 멤버로 가입할 것으로 예측되는 점, 무선 인터넷 폭발적인 성장으로 복합 멀티미디어 단말기 시대가 다가오는 점 등으로 미루어 볼 때, 고객의 서비스 가치선택에 역점을 둔 기술을 중시해야 한다는 점에서 더욱 설득력을 지닌다. 따라서 이 같은 목적과 3세대 이동통신 및 인터넷 사용자의 증가, 반도체기술의 발전에 힘입어, 과거 군용 시스템에서 이용되던 SWR 기술을 상용시스템 특히 3세대 이동통신에 적용하려는 연구가 활발히 진행되고 있다. '96년 SDR 포럼이 결성되었는데, 목적은 휴대형 장치(hand-held devices), 기지국(base stations), 차량형 장치(mobile stations)를 포함하는 다중모드(multi-mode), 다중대역(multi-band) SDR을 위한 개방형 구조의 표준을 정하기 위함이다. 이 같이 public forum에 의한 표준(open architecture standard)이 정해지면 그 다음은 이를 어떻게 구현할 것인가가 문제가 될 것이다. 본고에서는 먼저 SDR 단말기 요구사항을 살펴보고, 이 요구사항들을 만족하는 SDR 단말기 구조, SDR 계층참조 모델, 그리고 기존의 단말기 구조와 SDR 계층참조 모델의 연관관계에 대해 살펴보고, 크게 두가지 종류의 단말기 즉 사용 SDR 단말기와 군용 SDR 단말기에 대해 살펴보고, 설계 절차 및 현재 시점에서 단말기 구현을 위해 해결해야 하는 기술적 과제를 살펴보고 결론을 언급한다.

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Individual Order Intermodulation Distortion Generator Using Series Feedback of Diode and Its Application (다이오드 직렬 궤환을 이용한 개별 차수 혼변조 발생기 및 응용)

  • Son, Kang-Ho;Kim, Seung-Hwan;Kim, Ell-Kou;Kim, Young;Yoon, Young-Chul
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1096-1103
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    • 2008
  • This paper proposes an individual order predistortion linearizer using intermodulation distortion(IMD) generator for cancellation the third and the fifth IMD of power amplifier. The IMD generator for controlling the third and the fifth IMD consist of common Emitter amplifier and Schottky diode. These signals are generated by series feedback of Schottky diode to obtain the inverse AM/AM and AM/PM characteristics of power amplifier. The individual order predistorters are consisted of individual IMD generator, power splitter and combiner. The test results show that the third and the fifth IMD can be improved by a maximum 13.5 dB and 0.9 dB in case of CW 2-tone signals. Also, the Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio(ACLR) can be improved 2.3 dB, 2.5 dB at ${\pm}0.885$ MHz, ${\pm}1.23$ MHz offset frequency for CD-MA IS-95 2FA signals.

Development of an Integrated Forecasting and Warning System for Abrupt Natural Disaster using rainfall prediction data and Ubiquitous Sensor Network(USN) (농촌지역 돌발재해 피해 경감을 위한 USN기반 통합예경보시스템 (ANSIM)의 개발)

  • Bae, Seung-Jong;Bae, Won-Gil;Bae, Yeon-Joung;Kim, Seong-Pil;Kim, Soo-Jin;Seo, Il-Hwan;Seo, Seung-Won
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.171-179
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    • 2015
  • The objectives of this research have been focussed on 1) developing prediction techniques for the flash flood and landslide based on rainfall prediction data in agricultural area and 2) developing an integrated forecasting system for the abrupt disasters using USN based real-time disaster sensing techniques. This study contains following steps to achieve the objective; 1) selecting rainfall prediction data, 2) constructing prediction techniques for flash flood and landslide, 3) developing USN and communication network protocol for detecting the abrupt disaster suitable for rural area, & 4) developing mobile application and SMS based early warning service system for local resident and tourist. Local prediction model (LDAPS, UM1.5km) supported by Korean meteorological administration was used for the rainfall prediction by considering spatial and temporal resolution. NRCS TR-20 and infinite slope stability analysis model were used to predict flash flood and landslide. There are limitations in terms of communication distance and cost using Zigbee and CDMA which have been used for existing disaster sensors. Rural suitable sensor-network module for water level and tilting gauge and gateway based on proprietary RF network were developed by consideration of low-cost, low-power, and long-distance for communication suitable for rural condition. SMS & mobile application forecasting & alarming system for local resident and tourist was set up for minimizing damage on the critical regions for abrupt disaster. The developed H/W & S/W for integrated abrupt disaster forecasting & alarming system was verified by field application.

CACB-Q2PSK Modulation for Efficient Bandwidth Utilization and Constant Amplitude Signal Transmission (효율적인 대역폭 이용과 정진폭 신호 전송을 위한 CACB-Q2PSK 변조)

  • Hong, Dae-Ki
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 2008
  • In this paper, we propose new modulation schemes using the conventional CACB modulation with constant amplitude property. Also the proposed modulation schemes supports high transmission data rate by increasing the spectral efficiency. In order to obtain the high spectral efficiency, the $Q^2$PSK and CA-$Q^2$PSK are used. We explain the simplest combining modulation scheme of CACB and $Q^2$PSK (i.e., CACB-$Q^2$PSK). However, this modulation scheme cannot support the constant amplitude property. Hence the first CACB-CA-$Q^2$PSK (or CACB-CA-$Q^2$PSK I) modulation scheme is proposed for the constant amplitude property. In the modulation scheme, the redundant constant amplitude encoding (spectral efficiency decrease) is required. Therefore, the second CACB-CA-$Q^2$PSK (or CACB-CA-$Q^2$PSK II) modulation scheme is proposed retaining the constant amplitude and the spectral efficiency. Computer simulations show that the proposed CACB-CA-$Q^2$PSK II is the efficient modulation scheme.

A digital Audio Watermarking Algorithm using 2D Barcode (2차원 바코드를 이용한 오디오 워터마킹 알고리즘)

  • Bae, Kyoung-Yul
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.97-107
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    • 2011
  • Nowadays there are a lot of issues about copyright infringement in the Internet world because the digital content on the network can be copied and delivered easily. Indeed the copied version has same quality with the original one. So, copyright owners and content provider want a powerful solution to protect their content. The popular one of the solutions was DRM (digital rights management) that is based on encryption technology and rights control. However, DRM-free service was launched after Steve Jobs who is CEO of Apple proposed a new music service paradigm without DRM, and the DRM is disappeared at the online music market. Even though the online music service decided to not equip the DRM solution, copyright owners and content providers are still searching a solution to protect their content. A solution to replace the DRM technology is digital audio watermarking technology which can embed copyright information into the music. In this paper, the author proposed a new audio watermarking algorithm with two approaches. First, the watermark information is generated by two dimensional barcode which has error correction code. So, the information can be recovered by itself if the errors fall into the range of the error tolerance. The other one is to use chirp sequence of CDMA (code division multiple access). These make the algorithm robust to the several malicious attacks. There are many 2D barcodes. Especially, QR code which is one of the matrix barcodes can express the information and the expression is freer than that of the other matrix barcodes. QR code has the square patterns with double at the three corners and these indicate the boundary of the symbol. This feature of the QR code is proper to express the watermark information. That is, because the QR code is 2D barcodes, nonlinear code and matrix code, it can be modulated to the spread spectrum and can be used for the watermarking algorithm. The proposed algorithm assigns the different spread spectrum sequences to the individual users respectively. In the case that the assigned code sequences are orthogonal, we can identify the watermark information of the individual user from an audio content. The algorithm used the Walsh code as an orthogonal code. The watermark information is rearranged to the 1D sequence from 2D barcode and modulated by the Walsh code. The modulated watermark information is embedded into the DCT (discrete cosine transform) domain of the original audio content. For the performance evaluation, I used 3 audio samples, "Amazing Grace", "Oh! Carol" and "Take me home country roads", The attacks for the robustness test were MP3 compression, echo attack, and sub woofer boost. The MP3 compression was performed by a tool of Cool Edit Pro 2.0. The specification of MP3 was CBR(Constant Bit Rate) 128kbps, 44,100Hz, and stereo. The echo attack had the echo with initial volume 70%, decay 75%, and delay 100msec. The sub woofer boost attack was a modification attack of low frequency part in the Fourier coefficients. The test results showed the proposed algorithm is robust to the attacks. In the MP3 attack, the strength of the watermark information is not affected, and then the watermark can be detected from all of the sample audios. In the sub woofer boost attack, the watermark was detected when the strength is 0.3. Also, in the case of echo attack, the watermark can be identified if the strength is greater and equal than 0.5.

A study on The U.S.-Korean Trade Friction Prevention and Settlement in the Fields of Information and Telecommunication Industries (한미간(韓美間) 정보통신분야(情報通信分野) 통상마찰예방(通商摩擦豫防)과 해소방안(解消方案)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Jung, Jay-Young
    • THE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE & LAW REVIEW
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    • v.13
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    • pp.869-895
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    • 2000
  • The US supports the Information and Communication (IC) industry as a strategic one to wield a complete power over the World Market. However, several other countries are also eager to have the support for the IC industry because the industry produces a high added value and has a significant effect on other industries. Korea is not an exception. Korea recently succeeded in the commercialization of CDMA for the first time in the world, after the successful development of TDX. Hence, it is highly likely to get tracked by the US. Although the IC industry is a specific sector of IT, there is a concern that there might be a trade friction between the US and Korea due to a possible competition. It will be very important to prepare a solution in advance so that Korea could prevent the friction and at the same time increase its share domestically and globally. It will be our important task to solve the problem with the minimum cost if the conflict arises unfortunately in the IT area. The parties that have a strong influence on the US trade policy are the think tank group and the IT-related interest group. Therefore, it would be important to have a close relationship with them. We found some implications by analyzing the case of Japan, which has experienced trade frictions with the US over the long period of time in the high tech industry. In order to get rid of those conflicts with the US, the Japanese did the following things : (1) The Japanese government developed supporting theories and also resorted to international support so that the world could support the Japanese theories. (2) Through continual dialogue with the US business people, the Japanese business people sought after solutions to share profits among the Japanese and the US both in the domestic and in the worldwide markets. They focused on lobbying activities to influence the US public opinion to support the Japanese. The specific implementation plan was first to open culture lobby toward opinion leaders who were leaders about the US opinion. The institution, Japan Society, were formed to deliver a high quality lobbying activities. The second plan is economic lobby. They have established Japanese Economic Institute at Washington. They provide information about Japan regularly or irregularly to the US government, research institution, universities, etc., that are interested in Japan. The main objective behind these activities though is to advertise the validity of Japanese policy. Japanese top executives, practical interest groups on international trade, are trying to justify their position by direct contact with the US policy makers. The third one is political lobby. Japan is very careful about this political lobby. It is doing its best not to give impression that Japan is trying to shape the US policy making. It is collecting a vast amount of information to make a correct judgment on situation. It is not tilted toward one political party or the other, and is rather developing a long-term network of people who understand and support the Japanese policy. The following implications were drawn from the experience of Japan. First, the Korean government should develop a long-term plan and execute it to improve the Korean image perceived by American people. Second, the Korean government should begin public relation activities toward the US elite group. It is inevitable to make an effort to advertise Korea to this elite group because this group leads public opinion in the USA. Third, the Korean government needs the development of a relevant policy to elevate the positive atmosphere for advertising toward the US. For example, we need information about to whom and how to about lobbying activities, personnel network who immediately respond to wrong articles about Korea in the US press, and lastly the most recent data bank of Korean support group inside the USA. Fourth, the Korean government should create an atmosphere to facilitate the advertising toward the US. Examples include provision of incentives in tax on the expenses for the advertising toward the US and provision of rewards to those who significantly contribute to the advertising activities. Fifth, the Korean government should perform the role of a bridge between Korean and the US business people. Sixth, the government should promptly analyze the policy of IT industry, a strategic area, and timely distribute information to industries in Korea. Since the Korean government is the only institution that has formal contact with the US government, it is highly likely to provide information of a high quality. The followings are some implications for business institutions. First, Korean business organization should carefully analyze and observe the business policy and managerial conditions of US companies. It is very important to do so because all the trade frictions arise at the business level. Second, it is also very important that the top management of Korean firms contact the opinion leaders of the US. Third, it is critically needed that Korean business people sent to the USA do their part for PR activities. Fourth, it is very important to advertise to American employees in Korean companies. If we cannot convince our American employees, it would be a lot harder to convince regular American. Therefore, it is very important to make the American employees the support group for Korean ways. Fifth, it should try to get much information as early as possible about the US firms policy in the IT area. It should give an enormous effort on early collection of information because by doing so it has more time to respond. Sixth, it should research on the PR cases of foreign enterprise or non-American companies inside the USA. The research needs to identify the success factors and the failure factors. Finally, the business firm will get more valuable information if it analyzes and responds to, according to each medium.

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The Factors Affecting Attitudes Toward HSDPA Service and Intention to Use: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Asia and Europe (대영향(对影响)HSDPA복무적태도화사용의도적인소적연구(服务的态度和使用意图的因素的研究): 재아주화구주지간적(在亚洲和欧洲之间的)-개과문화비교(个跨文化比较))

  • Jung, Hae-Sung;Shin, Jong-Kuk;Park, Min-Sook;Jung, Hong-Seob;Hooley, Graham;Lee, Nick;Kwak, Hyok-Jin;Kim, Sung-Hyun
    • Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.11-23
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    • 2009
  • HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access) is a 3.5-generation asynchronous mobile communications service based on the third generation of W-CDMA. In Korea, it is mainly provided in through videophone service. Because of the diffusion of more powerful and diversified services, along with steep advances in mobile communications technology, consumers demand a wide range of choices. However, because of the variety of technologies, which tend to overflow the market regardless of consumer preferences, consumers feel increasingly confused. Therefore, we should not adopt strategies that focus only on developing new technology on the assumption that new technologies are next-generation projects. Instead, we should understand the process by which consumers accept new forms of technology and devise schemes to lower market entry barriers through strategies that enable developers to understand and provide what consumers really want. In the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are suggested as the most important factors affecting the attitudes of people adopting new technologies (Davis, 1989; Taylor and Todd, 1995; Venkatesh, 2000; Lee et al., 2004). Perceived usefulness is the degree to which a person believes that a particular technology will enhance his or her job performance. Perceived ease of use is the degree of subjective belief that using a particular technology will require little physical and mental effort (Davis, 1989; Morris and Dillon, 1997; Venkatesh, 2000). Perceived pleasure and perceived usefulness have been shown to clearly affect attitudes toward accepting technology (Davis et al., 1992). For example, pleasure in online shopping has been shown to positively impact consumers' attitudes toward online sellers (Eighmey and McCord, 1998; Mathwick, 2002; Jarvenpaa and Todd, 1997). The perceived risk of customers is a subjective risk, which is distinguished from an objective probabilistic risk. Perceived risk includes a psychological risk that consumers perceive when they choose brands, stores, and methods of purchase to obtain a particular item. The ability of an enterprise to revolutionize products depends on the effective acquisition of knowledge about new products (Bierly and Chakrabarti, 1996; Rothwell and Dodgson, 1991). Knowledge acquisition is the ability of a company to perceive the value of novelty and technology of the outside (Cohen and Levinthal, 1990), to evaluate the outside technology that has newly appeared (Arora and Gambaradella, 1994), and to predict the future evolution of technology accurately (Cohen and Levinthal, 1990). Consumer innovativeness is the degree to which an individual adopts innovation earlier than others in the social system (Lee, Ahn, and Ha, 2001; Gatignon and Robertson, 1985). That is, it shows how fast and how easily consumers adopt new ideas. Innovativeness is regarded as important because it has a significant effect on whether consumers adopt new products and on how fast they accept new products (Midgley and Dowling, 1978; Foxall, 1988; Hirschman, 1980). We conducted cross-national comparative research using the TAM model, which empirically verified the relationship between the factors that affect attitudes - perceived usefulness, ease of use, perceived pleasure, perceived risk, innovativeness, and perceived level of knowledge management - and attitudes toward HSDPA service. We also verified the relationship between attitudes and usage intention for the purpose of developing more effective methods of management for HSDPA service providers. For this research, 346 questionnaires were distributed among 350 students in the Republic of Korea. Because 26 of the returned questionnaires were inconsistent or had missing data, 320 questionnaires were used in the hypothesis tests. In UK, 192 of the total 200 questionnaires were retrieved, and two incomplete ones were discarded, bringing the total to 190 questionnaires used for statistical analysis. The results of the overall model analysis are as follows: Republic of Korea x2=333.27(p=0.0), NFI=0.88, NNFI=0.88, CFI=0.91, IFI=0.91, RMR=0.054, GFI=0.90, AGFI=0.84, UK x2=176.57(p=0.0), NFI=0.88, NNFI=0.90, CFI=0.93, IFI=0.93, RMR=0.062, GFI=0.90, AGFI=0.84. From the results of the hypothesis tests of Korean consumers about the relationship between factors that affect intention to use HSDPA services and attitudes, we can conclude that perceived usefulness, ease of use, pleasure, a high level of knowledge management, and innovativeness promote positive attitudes toward HSDPA mobile phones. However, ease of use and perceived pleasure did not have a direct effect on intention to use HSDPA service. This may have resulted from the fact that the use of video phones is not necessary for everyday life yet. Moreover, it has been shown that attitudes toward HSDPA video phones are directly correlated with usage intention, which means that perceived usefulness, ease of use, pleasure, a high level of knowledge management, and innovativeness. These relationships form the basis of the intention to buy, contributing to a situation in which consumers decide to choose carefully. A summary of the results of the hypothesis tests of European consumers revealed that perceived usefulness, pleasure, risk, and the level of knowledge management are factors that affect the formation of attitudes, while ease of use and innovativeness do not have an effect on attitudes. In particular, with regard to the effect value, perceived usefulness has the largest effect on attitudes, followed by pleasure and knowledge management. On the contrary, perceived risk has a smaller effect on attitudes. In the Asian model, ease of use and perceived pleasure were found not to have a direct effect on intention to use. However, because attitudes generally affect the intention to use, perceived usefulness, pleasure, risk, and knowledge management may be considered key factors in attitude development from which usage intention arises. In conclusion, perceived usefulness, pleasure, and the level of knowledge management have an effect on attitude formation in both Asian and European consumers, and such attitudes shape these consumers' intention to use. Furthermore, the hypotheses that ease of use and perceived pleasure affect usage intention are rejected. However, ease of use, perceived risk, and innovativeness showed different results. Perceived risk had no effect on attitude formation among Asians, while ease of use and innovativeness had no effect on attitudes among Europeans.

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