• Title, Summary, Keyword: Damage

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Vibration-mode-based story damage and global damage of reinforced concrete frames

  • Guo, Xiang;He, Zheng
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.589-598
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    • 2018
  • An attempt is conducted to explore the relationship between the macroscopic global damage and the local damage of shear-type RC frames. A story damage index, which can be expressed as multi-variate functions of modal parameters, is deduced based on the tridiagonal matrix of the shear-type frame. The global damage model is also originated from structural modal parameters. Due to the connection of modal damage indexes, the relationship between the macroscopic global damage and the local story damage is reasonably established. In order to validate the derivation, a case study is carried out via an 8-story shear-type frame. The sensitivities of modal damage indexes to the location and severity of local story damages are studied. The evolution of the global damage is investigated as well. Results show that the global damage is sensitive to the degree of story damage, but it's not sensitive to its location. As the number of the damaged stories increases, more and more modes will be involved. Meanwhile, the global damage evolution curve changes from the concave shape to the S-type and then finally transforms into the convex shape. Through the proposed story damage, modal damage and global damage model, a multi-level damage assessment method is established.

A new damage index for detecting sudden change of structural stiffness

  • Chen, B.;Xu, Y.L.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.315-341
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    • 2007
  • A sudden change of stiffness in a structure, associated with the events such as weld fracture and brace breakage, will cause a discontinuity in acceleration response time histories recorded in the vicinity of damage location at damage time instant. A new damage index is proposed and implemented in this paper to detect the damage time instant, location, and severity of a structure due to a sudden change of structural stiffness. The proposed damage index is suitable for online structural health monitoring applications. It can also be used in conjunction with the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for damage detection without using the intermittency check. Numerical simulation using a five-story shear building under different types of excitation is executed to assess the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed damage index and damage detection approach for the building at different damage levels. The sensitivity of the damage index to the intensity and frequency range of measurement noise is also examined. The results from this study demonstrate that the damage index and damage detection approach proposed can accurately identify the damage time instant and location in the building due to a sudden loss of stiffness if measurement noise is below a certain level. The relation between the damage severity and the proposed damage index is linear. The wavelet-transform (WT) and the EMD with intermittency check are also applied to the same building for the comparison of detection efficiency between the proposed approach, the WT and the EMD.

Numerical evaluation for vibration-based damage detection in wind turbine tower structure

  • Nguyen, Tuan-Cuong;Huynh, Thanh-Canh;Kim, Jeong-Tae
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.657-675
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    • 2015
  • In this study, the feasibility of vibration-based damage detection methods for the wind turbine tower (WTT) structure is evaluated. First, a frequency-based damage detection (FBDD) is outlined. A damage-localization algorithm is visited to locate damage from changes in natural frequencies. Second, a mode-shape-based damage detection (MBDD) method is outlined. A damage index algorithm is utilized to localize damage from estimating changes in modal strain energies. Third, a finite element (FE) model based on a real WTT is established by using commercial software, Midas FEA. Several damage scenarios are numerically simulated in the FE model of the WTT. Finally, both FBDD and MBDD methods are employed to identify the damage scenarios simulated in the WTT. Damage regions are chosen close to the bolt connection of WTT segments; from there, the stiffness of damage elements are reduced.

Hybrid damage monitoring of steel plate-girder bridge under train-induced excitation by parallel acceleration-impedance approach

  • Hong, D.S.;Jung, H.J.;Kim, J.T.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.719-743
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    • 2011
  • A hybrid damage monitoring scheme using parallel acceleration-impedance approaches is proposed to detect girder damage and support damage in steel plate-girder bridges which are under ambient train-induced excitations. The hybrid scheme consists of three phases: global and local damage monitoring in parallel manner, damage occurrence alarming and local damage identification, and detailed damage estimation. In the first phase, damage occurrence in a structure is globally monitored by changes in vibration features and, at the same moment, damage occurrence in local critical members is monitored by changes in impedance features. In the second phase, the occurrence of damage is alarmed and the type of damage is locally identified by recognizing patterns of vibration and impedance features. In the final phase, the location and severity of the locally identified damage are estimated by using modal strain energy-based damage index methods. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is evaluated on a steel plate-girder bridge model which was experimentally tested under model train-induced excitations. Acceleration responses and electro-mechanical impedance signatures were measured for several damage scenarios of girder damage and support damage.

Damage Assessment According to Damage Types and Influential Factors of Stone Pagoda Structure (석탑문화재 손상 유형 및 영향 요인에 따른 손상도 평가)

  • Kim, Ho-Soo;Hong, Souk-il;Jeon, Gun-Woo;Kim, Derk-Moon;Park, Chan-Min
    • Journal of Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.87-97
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    • 2018
  • Stone pagoda structures have continued to be aged due to the combination of various damage factors. However, some studies on nonstructural damage have been carried out, but assessment studies on structural damage have not been done in various ways. Therefore, in this study, structural and nonstructural influencing factors according to the damage types are classified and the damage assessment according to the structural influencing factors affecting the behavior of the stone pagoda structure is performed. In addition, the damage rating classification criteria for each type of structural damages or damage locations are presented, and the damage index is calculated by providing the criteria for the classification of damage according to the degree of damage to which the damage is caused. Therefore, this study can evaluate quantitatively the damage status of stone pagoda structures.

A Study on the Damage level of Pavement For The Landscape Urban Community Parks - In case of Dukjin, Choongang, and Dosan Park - (도시 근린 공원내 조경 포장면의 손상 정도에 관한 연구 -덕진(전주), 중앙(청주), 도산(서울) 공원을 중심으로-)

  • 신병철;권상준
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.96-108
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    • 1996
  • This study aimed at choosing the urban community parks such as D Kjin, Chungang, Dosan Park as the target place for this study, and at analyzing the damage level of the pavement surfaces focusing on the spaces and the materials. We devided the damage level within $1.5\times$1.5m grid int the grade from one to five points, and made use of the method of giving marks to get hold of the damage level of the pavement surfaces. Especially we took and analyze Duncan test for the spaces suffering severe damage. The result is as follows : 1. The damage of unenenness turned out to be a most excessive damage in the damage level according to the pavement materials in case of D kjin, and Chunggnag Park. Especially the concrete blocks proved to be the exessive damage in comparison with the other pavement materials, and the demolitional damage of the damage types to the most severe damage. The corner damage turned relatively out to be a heavy damage in case of Dosan Park in Seoul. 2. In the event of the damage level of pavement surfaces according to the spaces, the space which was made the more use of and which was the more concentrated, turned out to be the degree of the more excessive damage. 3. We took the Duncan test to verify the deference of the damage type between the spaces and the pavement materials of the target places for survey. The result of verification was that there was no difference of the damage type between the corner and block damage itself in case of the enterance area and the square of D kjin Park in Ch nju, and that the damage level of the pavement materials proved to be the more execssive damage than that of the spaces. The corner damage of Chungang Park in Hj ngju, showed the same result as D kjin Park in Ch nju and the uneveness didn't have any difference of damage type in all spaces. In case of Dosan in Seoul, the damage of crevice, demolition, and pumping didn't have any difference of damage type and the damage of the cross area was the most high. In conclusion, we proposed that we should get hold of whether the cause of pavement damage is caused by the defect of materials of by the construction problem including the foundation, or the unsuitableness of the method for using the pavement materials, and also that we should take a sensus of the user type and should decide a suitable design load and the necessary thickness of the pavement materials. In this study, not only we aimed at the external damage of the materials, but we tried to propose rather reasonable and developed construction method by studying the material experiment, the foundation state, and the type of using the spaces and materials, and by examining into the fundamental damaged cause.

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Theoretical formulation of double scalar damage variables

  • Xue, Xinhua;Zhang, Wohua
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.501-507
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    • 2017
  • The predictive utility of a damage model depends heavily on its particular choice of a damage variable, which serves as a macroscopic approximation in describing the underlying micromechanical processes of microdefects. In the case of spatially perfectly randomly distributed microcracks or microvoids in all directions, isotropic damage model is an appropriate choice, and scalar damage variables were widely used for isotropic or one-dimensional phenomenological damage models. The simplicity of a scalar damage representation is indeed very attractive. However, a scalar damage model is of somewhat limited use in practice. In order to entirely characterize the isotropic damage behaviors of damaged materials in multidimensional space, a system theory of isotropic double scalar damage variables, including the expressions of specific damage energy release rate, the coupled constitutive equations corresponding to damage, the conditions of admissibility for two scalar damage effective tensors within the framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes, was provided and analyzed in this study. Compared with the former studies, the theoretical formulations of double scalar damage variables in this study are given in the form of matrix, which has many features such as simpleness, directness, convenience and programmable characteristics. It is worth mentioning that the above-mentioned theoretical formulations are only logically reasonable. Owing to the limitations of time, conditions, funds, etc. they should be subject to multifaceted experiments before their innovative significance can be fully verified. The current level of research can be regarded as an exploratory attempt in this field.

Earthquake Damage Monitoring for Underground Structures Based Damage Detection Techniques

  • Kim, Jin Ho;Kim, Na Eun
    • International Journal of Railway
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.94-99
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    • 2014
  • Urban railway systems are located under populated areas and are mostly constructed for underground structures which demand high standards of structural safety. However, the damage progression of underground structures is hard to evaluate and damaged underground structures may not effectively stand against successive earthquakes. This study attempts to examine initial damage-stage and to access structural damage condition of the ground structures using Earthquake Damage Monitoring (EDM) system. For actual underground structure, vulnerable damaged member of Ulchiro-3ga station is chosen by finite element analysis using applied artificial earthquake load, and then damage pattern and history of damaged members is obtained from measured acceleration data introduced unsupervised learning recognition. The result showed damage index obtained by damage scenario establishment using acceleration response of selected vulnerable members is useful. Initial damage state is detected for selected vulnerable member according to established damage scenario. Stiffness degrading ratio is increasing whereas the value of reliability interval is decreasing.

A new damage index for seismic fragility analysis of reinforced concrete columns

  • Kang, Jun Won;Lee, Jeeho
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.60 no.5
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    • pp.875-890
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    • 2016
  • A new structural damage index for seismic fragility analysis of reinforced concrete columns is developed based on a local tensile damage variable of the Lee and Fenves plastic-damage model. The proposed damage index is formulated from the nonlinear regression of experimental column test data. In contrast to the response-based damage index, the proposed damage index is well-defined in the form of a single monotonically-increasing function of the volume weighted average of local damage distribution, and provides the necessary computability and objectivity. It is shown that the present damage index can be appropriately zoned to be used in seismic fragility analysis. An application example in the computational seismic fragility evaluation of reinforced concrete columns validates the effectiveness of the proposed damage index.

Provenance and Concept of 10 Symptoms of Para-cold Damage(類傷寒) from Yixuerumen(醫學入門) (『의학입문(醫學入門)·상한편(傷寒篇)』 유상한(類傷寒) 병증(病症) 10종의 유래와 개념에 대한 연구)

  • Jo, Hak-jun
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.17-36
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : This paper seeks to study the provenances of 10 Symptoms of Para-cold damage from Yixuerumen, and discovers the rationality and originality of para-cold damages recognized by Li Chan. Methods : The paper looks through the books referenced by Yixuerumen to investigate the source text for Yixuerumen's Para-cold Damage chapter, and the contents of the referenced books will be compared to that of Yixuerumen. Results : The sources of the 10 symptoms of para-cold damage from Yixuerumen Chapter of Cold Damage can be traced to Leizhenghuorenshu (expectoration, indigestion, rising temperature due to lack of energy, and beriberi), Wang Zhen's Shanghanzhengzhimingtiao Xinzengxuleishanghansizheng(the infection in a boil, blood sattis, caused overexertion, and pox), and Liu Chun's Yujiweiyi's chapter on Common Cold. Here, Li Chan made his own addition of internal damage and damage of overworking. Li Chan seems to have considered para-cold damage not as a type of cold damage but as a "concept relative to the broader range of cold damage." In reflection of this understanding, Li Chan limited the number of categories to ten in accordance with the developmental trace leading from Leizhenghuorenshu to Shanghanzhengzhimingtiao. When we understand para-cold damage as a "concept relative to the narrower range of cold damage," it could be used as a mean as for "Wenbin diagnosis," but Yixuerumen's para-cold damage is only utilized for the "diagnosis of a broader concept of cold damage." Conclusions : Li Chan deserves credits for his academic rationality and originality displayed by the method he used to form para-cold damages where he used real cold damage and para-cold damage as principles, by the division of para-cold damage symptoms into ten provenances, by the creation of the concept of para-cold damage, and by his broad collection of prescription and treatment corresponding to each type.