• Title, Summary, Keyword: ETS

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The Effects of Initial pH on the Crystallization of Zeolitic ETS-Series (초기 pH가 제올라이트성 ETS-계열의 결정화반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Wha Jung;Kim, Youn Sang
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.33-37
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    • 1998
  • The effects of initial pH on the synthesis of new microporus zeolitic materials, ETS-4 and ETS-10 were investigated with the initial pH from 10.4 to 11.5. The results showed that initial pH significantly affect the type of ETS-series materials to be crystallized ; that is, pure ETS-10 at 10.4 of pH, mixture of ETS-10 and ETS-4 at intermediate pH, and pure ETS-4 at pH. Micrographs show that the morphology of final solid product changes from the shape contacting the bottom sides of two truncated pyramids to the plane-like shape as initial pH increases.

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Ets-1 enhances tumor migration through regulation of CCR7 expression

  • Fang, Li-Wen;Kao, Ying-Hsien;Chuang, Ya-Ting;Huang, Huey-Lan;Tai, Tzong-Shyuan
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.52 no.9
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    • pp.548-553
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    • 2019
  • Ets-1 is a prototype of the ETS protein family. Members of the ETS protein family contain a unique ETS domain. Ets-1 is associated with cancer progression and metastasis in many types of cancer. Many studies have shown a link between elevated expression of Ets-1 in cancer biopsies and poor survival. CCR7 is a chemokine that binds to specific ligand CCL21/CCL19. CCR7 expression is associated with tumor metastasis and infiltration into lymph nodes. The objective of this study was to test whether Ets-1 could regulate CCR7 expression and enhance tumor metastasis. Our data showed that CCR7 expression was downregulated in Ets-1-deficient T cells upon T-cell stimulation. Overexpression of Ets-1 increased CCR7 expression in breast cancer cell lines. In contrast, knockdown of Ets-1 reduced CCR7 expression. Ets-1 could directly bind to CCR7 promoter and mediate CCR7 expression in luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Transactivation activity of Ets-1 was independent of the Pointed domain of Ets-1. Ets-1 could also enhance $NF-{\kappa}B$ and CBP transactivation of CCR7 promoter. Our results also showed that Ets-1 could modulate cancer cell transmigration by altering CCR7 expression in transwell assay and wound healing assay. Taken together, our data suggest that Ets-1 can enhance CCR7 expression and contribute to tumor cell migration.

Concept Analysis of Endotracheal Suctioning(ETS) (기관내흡인에 대한 개념분석)

  • Ahn Young-Mee
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.292-302
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: Concept analysis was performed on the behavioral concept of endotracheal suctioning (ETS), to identify the goal, to develop astandardized clinical protocol, to identify the antecedents and consequences, and to differentiate the improper use of ETS. Method: Walker & Avant's concept analysis was employed using clinical guidelines, books and review articles in which the procedures of ETS were written in detail and published in Pubmed within the last 20 years. Result: The macro-goal of ETS was to remove accumulated respiratory secretions. Three defining attributes of ETS were identified; catheter, suctioning and asepsis. Each attribute involved empirical referents, such as the size and depth of the catheter, the suction pressure, duration and method for suctioning. The antecedents of ETS were identical to the clinical evidences for the need of ETS such as the nursing assessment data. The consequences of ETS serve as an evaluation criteria on the effectsof ETS based on the goal of ETS. Conclusion: The concept analysis of ETS demonstrates an example of considering a specific nursing protocol of ETS as a behavioral concept, applying concept analysis to it to identify it's key behavioral components as defining attributes and empirical referents and then developing and applying the standard ETS protocol.

The physicochemical Characterization of ETS (Environmental Tobacco Smoke) (Environmental Tobacco Smoke의 이화학적 특성)

  • 이문수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.79-97
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    • 1995
  • On the basis of the literature, which is at present still scientific information improvable, the results of research done so far into the occurrence and analytical methodology of major markers of environmental tobacco smoke(ETS) have been summarized. Key areas addressed are: differences in physicochemical composition between mainstream smoke, sidestream smoke and ETS: techniques for field measurement of ETS: relationship between indoor air quality with ETS and its distribution view of US EPA and its problems: biological effects and concerning estimation of ETS exposure.

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The Effects of Open Endotracheal Suctioning(ETS) and Close ETS on Oxygen Saturation and Heart Rate in Premature Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome (개방형과 폐쇄형 기관지 흡인술이 호흡곤란 미숙아의 산소포화도와 심박동수에 미치는 영향에 대한 비교연구)

  • 김미순;안영미;박인옥;최숙자;유미영
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.529-539
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    • 1998
  • Prematurity is the main cause for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in neonates. The goal in the treatment of RDS is to maintain respiration with adequate oxygenation. ETS needs to be performed to remove lung secretions in the ventilated premature infants with RDS. Oxygen saturation(SpO$_2$) and heart rate(HR) were compared in 22 premature infants with RDS using two types of ETS : open ETS versus close ETS. The results showed there was no significant difference in the SpO$_2$ and HR responses between open ETS and close ETS. The SpO$_2$ and HR returned to the baseline within 1 minute after suctioning. But in some case, there was a significantly greater incidence in the decrease of SpO$_2$ below 90% occured in the open ETS than in the close ETS. It implies that closed ETS may be beneficial to the premature infants who tend to develop desaturation easily.

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A Study of the International Dispute on EU ETS Aviation Directive (EU ETS 항공 부분 지침에 따른 국제 분쟁에 관한 소고)

  • Hur, Yun-Seok;Pak, Myong-Sub;Woo, Jung-Wouk;Youn, Jae-Woong
    • THE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE & LAW REVIEW
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    • v.54
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    • pp.261-282
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    • 2012
  • The European Union (EU) has introduced the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) as one of the key policies to reduce the level of greenhouse gas emissions and in July 2008, they decided to include aviation in the scheme. As soon as the decision was announced the EU ETS was met by sharp opposition from world governments and international aviation. A group of US airlines, in particular, dropped a lawsuit against the British government over aviation's inclusion in the EU ETS. On 21 December, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) ruled that aviation's inclusion in the EU ETS which covers all flights arriving into and departing from the EU is legal and does not contravene international law. The scheme eventually came into effect on 1 January 2012. However, most countries are in opposition to the EU ETS and have agreed on counter-measures to undermine the EU's plan which may bring chaos to the aviation industry if such measures were to put into practice. This study therefore will analyze the likely effects that may be brought to the Korean aviation industry as a result of the inclusion of aviation in the EU ETS. Further, it hopes to contribute to the Korean aviation industry by studying other countries' counter-measures in advance.

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A Study on Countermeasures of Electronic Component Industry according to Korean Emission Trading Scheme Enforcement (국내 배출권거래제 시행에 따른 전자부품산업 대응방안 연구)

  • Choi, Eun Kyung;Lim, Hoseon;Lee, Min Young;Shin, Seung-chol
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.331-338
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    • 2014
  • The continued efforts to reduce GHG emission by international cooperation and each country are in progress. As part of these efforts, Korea's ETS is enforced in 2015. This was the time to make strategies for each company to respond Korea's ETS. This study was performed to suggest a draft of basic strategies for electronic component industry in current Korea's ETS stage are as follows; - Analyzing the nature of electronic component industry - Identifying needs for corresponding ETS of electronic component industry - Analyzing basic countermeasures for each stage of ETS - Suggesting drafts of basic strategies for electronic component industry in current Korea's ETS stage The result of this study, the current stage of Korea's ETS is moving from implementation of the scheme become determined and prepare the minimum corresponding to direct corresponding to the regulation and market change. Electronic component industry has many GHG emission growth(or change) factor, and it will be make electronic component industry as a buyer when Korea's ETS is enforced. Korea's ETS will be clearly act as a regulation rather than new business for electronic component industry. Therefore, identifying the Korea's ETS as a regulation is resonable strategy for corresponding the scheme. The basic strategies of electronic component industry th responding Korea's ETS are as follows; - Building internal organization and decision-making system before enforcement the Korea's ETS - Establishing internal basic corresponding strategies according to carbon price forecast scenarios - Considering the energy consumption and GHG emissions in design phase and preparing the global ETS market in mid or long term.

A Study on the Concentrations of Environmental Tobacco Smoke in PC Game Rooms in Seoul (서울시내 PC방에서의 환경성담배연기(ETS) 농도에 관한 연구)

  • 황규석;백남원;하권철
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.43-49
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    • 2003
  • ETS concentrations in the PC game rooms and factors affecting ETS concentrations were measured. Nicotine, 3-EP, respirable dust and UVPM were used as tracers for ETS. ETS concentrations are 2-3 times higher than those of other results. The concentration of ETS at the commercial district was higher than that of the residential district. The correlations between these tracers and SD/ ACH, a factor affecting to ETS concentration, were calculated. The correlation between 3-ethenylpyridine among tracers and SD/ACH was highest. The correlation between respirable dust and SD/ ACH was lowest. It was difficult to recommend respirable dust as a tracer of ETS.

Characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds associated with Environmental Tobacco Smoke

  • Baek, Sung-Ok;Roger A. Jenkins
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.14 no.E
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    • pp.41-58
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    • 1998
  • In this study, a wide range of volatile organic constituents of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were determined using an environmental chamber, where ETS is the sole source of target compounds. ETS was generated in an environmental chamber by a number of different cigarettes, including the Kentucky reference cigarette and eight different commercial brands. More than 30 compounds were measured simultaneously for a total of twelve experimental runs. The target compounds are classified into three major classes, i.e. vapor phase ETS markers including 3-ethnylpyridine (3-EP) and nicotine, carbonyl compounds including formaldehyde, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The results from the chamber study were used to generate characterized ratios of selected VOCs to 3-EP, a vapor phase ETS marker. Emission factors for VOCs associated with ETS were also estimated. The characteristic ratios appeared to be generally in good agreement with published data obtained by environmental chamber studies similar to this study. This implies that the ratios may be useful for identifying and quantifying the impact of ETS as a source of target compounds in 'real world' indoor environments, which is affected by a complex mixture of multi-sources. The environmental chamber method described here provides a direct and reliable method to compare the ETS generated by different cigarettes. The method can also be applied to the simultaneous determination of many different ETS components.

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Environmental tobacco smoke and childhood asthma

  • Song, Dae Jin
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.121-128
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    • 2010
  • In recent years, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has become an important worldwide public health issue. Children are particularly vulnerable to ETS because they are still developing. ETS exposure causes a wide range of adverse health effects on childhood asthma. There is convincing evidence that ETS exposure is causally associated with an increased prevalence of asthma, increased severity of asthma and worsening asthma control in children who already have the disease, even though a causal relationship with asthma onset is not yet established for asthma incidence. Mechanisms underlying these adverse effects of ETS are not clearly elucidated but e studies on this issue suggest that genetic susceptibility, impaired lung function, and augmented airway inflammation and remodeling may be involved. Children with asthma are just as likely to be exposed to ETS as children in general and there is no risk-free level of exposure. Therefore, providing a smoke-free environment may be of particular importance to the asthmatic children exposed to ETS who have adverse asthma outcomes, as well as to children with genetic susceptibility who are at increased risk of developing asthma upon exposure to ETS in early childhood.