• Title, Summary, Keyword: LLC-PK1 cells

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Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Petasites japonicus Attenuates Oxidative Stress through Regulation of Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor-2 Signal Pathway in LLC-PK1 Cells (머위 에틸아세테이트 분획물의 LLC-PK1 세포에서의 Nrf-2 매개 항산화 효과)

  • Kim, Ji Hyun;Lee, Jaemin;Lee, Sanghyun;Cho, Eun Ju
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.55-61
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    • 2016
  • Antioxidant effects and nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2) signal pathway of methanol extract and 4 fractions [n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol fractions] from Petasites japonicus were investigated. The EtOAc fraction showed highest polyphenol and flavonoid contents among other fractions. In addition, EtOAc fraction showed stronger scavenging activity against superoxide anion radical than other fractions. Furthermore, we investigated antioxidants effects of the EtOAc fraction under cellular system using $LLC-PK_1$ cells. The EtOAc fraction dose-dependently increased the antioxidant protein expressions of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) known to be involved in oxidative stress, through activation of Nrf-2. The treatment of EtOAc fraction ($100{\mu}g/mL$) led to the elevation of the high expression of Nrf-2-dependent factor such as HO-1 and TrxR1. These results indicated that the EtOAc fraction of P. japonicus showed high antioxidant activity by regulation of Nrf-2 signaling pathway.

Phloroglucinol Attenuates Free Radical-induced Oxidative Stress

  • So, Mi Jung;Cho, Eun Ju
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.129-135
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    • 2014
  • The protective role of phloroglucinol against oxidative stress and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) was investigated in vitro and in cell culture. Phloroglucinol had strong and concentration-dependent radical scavenging effects against nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anions ($O_2{^-}$), and hydroxyl radicals. In this study, free radical generators were used to induce oxidative stress in LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells. Treatment with phloroglucinol attenuated the oxidative stress induced by peroxyl radicals, NO, $O_2{^-}$, and peroxynitrite. Phloroglucinol also increased cell viability and decreased lipid peroxidation in a concentration-dependent manner. WI-38 human diploid fibroblast cells were used to investigate the protective effect of phloroglucinol against hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$)-induced SIPS. Phloroglucinol treatment attenuated $H_2O_2$-induced SIPS by increasing cell viability and inhibited lipid peroxidation, suggesting that treatment with phloroglucinol should delay the aging process. The present study supports the promising role of phloroglucinol as an antioxidative agent against free radical-induced oxidative stress and SIPS.

Protective Effect of Chungkukjang from Sunchang Province against Cellular Oxidative Damage

  • Choi, Ji-Myung;Yi, Na-Ri;Seo, Kyoung-Chun;Han, Ji-Sook;Song, Young-Ok;Cho, Eun-Ju
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.90-94
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    • 2008
  • The protective effect of chungkukjang from Sunchang province against oxidative stress was evaluated in the cellular system using LLC-$PK_1$ renal epithelial cells. The LLC-$PK_1$ cells showed decrease in cell viability and elevation in lipid peroxidation by the treatment with the generators of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion ($O_2^-$) produced by sodium nitrouprusside and pyrogallol, respectively. However, the methanol extract of chungkukjang significantly inhibited cellular loss and lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner; in particular K chungkukjang (KC) exerted the strongest protective effect. In addition, the protective effect of chungkukjang from 3-morpholinosydnonimine, as a source of peroxynitrite, with simultaneous generations of NO and $O_2^-$, was also studied. Treatment with chungkukjangs significantly preserved the cell viability and inhibited lipid peroxidation caused by SIN-1 with dose-dependence. The present study suggests that chungkukjang from Sunchang province, especially KC, would have protective potential from oxidative stress induced by free radicals under cellular oxidative damage.

Mechanism of Inhibition of ${\alpha}$-Methylglucose Uptake by Cisplatin in $LLC-PK_1$ (시스플라틴에 의한 $LLC-PK_1$의 알파-메틸글루코스 흡수 감소 기전)

  • Seo, Kyung-Won;Kim, Hyo-Jung;Choung, Se-Young
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.705-712
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    • 1996
  • We have previously shown that determination of glucose uptake using ${\alpha}$-methylglucose(${\alpha}$-MG) is very sensitive and rapid parameter for the assessment of loss of cellular fu nction in renal cell line($LLC-PK_1$). The present study was designed to elucidate the mechanism of inhibition of ${\alpha}$-MG uptake and the intracellular site of toxic action of cisplatin(CIS). $LLC-PK_1$ cells were exposed to various concentrations(5 ${\mu}$M-l00 ${\mu}$M) of CIS for 5 hrs or 24 hrs and ${\alpha}$-MG uptake was determined. Mitochondrial function was evaluated by measuring intracellular ATP content and MTT reduction. The activities of marker enzymes for the basolateral membrane(Na$^+$-K$^+$ ATPase) and brush border membrane (alkaline phosphatase: ALP) were also measured. CIS treatment significantly inhibited the ${\alpha}$-MG uptake in a time- and dose-dependent manner above 25 ${\mu}$M for 5 hrs. Intracellular ATP content and MTT reduction were affected by 24 hr-treatment of 50 ${\mu}$M CIS. The activities of Na$^+$-K$^+$ ATPase and ALP were significantly decreased at 10 ${\mu}$M and 5 ${\mu}$M of CIS for 24 hrs, respectively. The incubation with CIS for 5 hrs had no effects on the intracellular ATP content, MTT reduction and the activities of marker enzymes up to 100 ${\mu}$M. These results partly indicate that inhibition of ${\alpha}$-MG uptake by CIS may not be attributed to the disturbance of mitochondrial function or inhibition of the activity of Na$^+$-K$^+$ ATPase and can be resulted from direct effect of CIS on the Na$^+$/glucose cotransporter in brush border membrane. This study shows that additional mechanistic information, indicating the intracellular site of nephrotoxic action, can be gained by coupling the ${\alpha}$-MG uptake and ATP content or the activity of Na$^+$-K$^+$ ATPase.

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Effects of Prunellae Herba on the H2O2-Treated LLC-PK Cell's Redox Status and NF-κB Signaling (H2O2 처리된 LLC-PK₁세포에서 Redox Status 및 NF-κB Signaling에 대한 하고초(夏枯草)의 효과)

  • Son, Jong Seok;Jeong, Ji Cheon
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.242-249
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    • 2016
  • This study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Prunellae Herba(PH). The generation of superoxide anion radical (․O2-), nitric oxide (NO), peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and Prostaglandin E₂(PGE2) were measured in the H2O2-Treated renal epithelial cells(LLC-PK1 cell) of mouse. And the effects of Prunellae Spica on the expression of NF-κB (p50, p65), IKK-α, phospho-IκB-α and inflammation-related proteins, COX-2, iNOS, IL-1β and VCAM-1, were examined by western blot. The fluorescent probes, 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA), 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2) and dihyldrorhodamine 123 (DHR 123) were used to estimate the scavenging effect of Prunellae Spica on ․O2-, NO, ONOO-. Western blot was conducted to assess the protein expression levels of NF-κB (p50, p65), IKK-α, phospho-IκB-α, inflammation-related proteins, COX-2, iNOS, IL-1β, VCAM-1. PH inhibited H2O2-treated cell death dose-dependently. It reduced the generation of ·O2-, NO, ONOO- and PGE₂ in the H2O2-treated renal epitheial cells(LLC-PK1 cell) of mouse in vitro. PH reduced the expression of NF-κB, IKK-α, phospho-IκB-α, COX-2, iNOS, IL-1β and VCAM-1 genes through means of decreasing activation of NF-κB signaling as well. According to these results, PH has an antioxidative activity and anti-inflammatory effect by regulating the NF-κB pathway. This suggest that PH is expected to be used to regulating inflammatory process and treating inflammation-related disease.

Free Radical Scavenging Effect and Oxidative Stress Protective Activity of Domestic Processed Polygoni Multiflori Radix (국내산 법제 하수오의 라디칼 소거능 및 산화적 스트레스 개선 효과)

  • Kim, Hyun Young;Kim, Jun Young;Cho, Eun Ju;Choi, Ji Myung;Hwang, Chung Eun;Lee, Hee Yul;Ahn, Min Ju;Lee, Jin Hwan;Kim, Yun-Geun;Ko, Keon Hee;Goo, Young-Min;Oh, Kyeong Yeol;Cho, Kye Man
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.809-815
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    • 2015
  • In this study, we confirmed biological compounds from methanol (MeOH) extract of processed Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PPMR), and the radical scavenging effect and oxidative stress protective activity of MeOH extract of PPMR were investigated under in vitro conditions using LLC-$PK_1$ renal epithelial cells. In HPLC analysis, MeOH extract of PPMR contained four species of biological compounds named 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-${\beta}$-D-glucoside, emodin, chrysophanol, and rhein. 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-${\beta}$-D-glucoside was detected as the main compound in PPMR as 115.02 mg/kg. MeOH extract of PPMR showed 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities in a concentration- dependent manner. In particular, upon $50{\mu}g/mL$ of PPMR extract treatment, DPPH, ABTS, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities were approximately 48.4%, 57.9%, and 81.2%, respectively. LLC-$PK_1$ cell viability declined in response to oxidative stress induced by pyrogallol, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) generators of NO, $O_2{^-}$, and $ONOO^-$, respectively. However, MeOH extract of PPMR significantly and dose-dependently inhibited oxidative-stressed LLC-$PK_1$ cell cytotoxicity. In fact, upon $50{\mu}g/mL$ of PPMR extract treatment, LLC-$PK_1$ cell viabilities were approximately 82.1%, 89.1%, and 77.6% compared to stress levels induced by pyrogallol, SNP, and SIN-1, respectively.

Blockade of P-Glycoprotein Decreased the Disposition of Phenformin and Increased Plasma Lactate Level

  • Choi, Min-Koo;Song, Im-Sook
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.199-205
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    • 2016
  • This study aimed to investigate the in vivo relevance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the pharmacokinetics and adverse effect of phenformin. To investigate the involvement of P-gp in the transport of phenformin, a bi-directional transport of phenformin was carried out in LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing P-gp, LLC-PK1-Pgp. Basal to apical transport of phenformin was 3.9-fold greater than apical to basal transport and became saturated with increasing phenformin concentration ($2-75{\mu}M$) in LLC-PK1-Pgp, suggesting the involvement of P-gp in phenformin transport. Intrinsic clearance mediated by P-gp was $1.9{\mu}L/min$ while passive diffusion clearance was $0.31{\mu}L/min$. Thus, P-gp contributed more to phenformin transport than passive diffusion. To investigate the contribution of P-gp on the pharmacokinetics and adverse effect of phenformin, the effects of verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of phenformin were also examined in rats. The plasma concentrations of phenformin were increased following oral administration of phenformin and intravenous verapamil infusion compared with those administerd phenformin alone. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as $C_{max}$ and AUC of phenformin increased and CL/F and Vss/F decreased as a consequence of verapamil treatment. These results suggested that P-gp blockade by verapamil may decrease the phenformin disposition and increase plasma phenformin concentrations. P-gp inhibition by verapamil treatment also increased plasma lactate concentration, which is a crucial adverse event of phenformin. In conclusion, P-gp may play an important role in phenformin transport process and, therefore, contribute to the modulation of pharmacokinetics of phenformin and onset of plasma lactate level.

The altered $Na^+,\;K^+$-pump activity following the fumonisin exposure to LLC-PKl cells

  • Choi, Heon-Kyo;Yoo, Jae-Myung;Tudev, Munkhtsetseg;Lee, Yong-Moon;Yun, Yeo-Pyo;Yoo, Hwan-Soo
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.110.1-110
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    • 2003
  • Fumonisins are specific inhibitors of ceramide synthase in sphingolipid metabolism. Sphingolipids are biologically active lipid mediators in cellular physiology and involved in cell signaling, growth, transformation, angiogenesis and differentiation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fumonisin B1 on $Na^+, \;K^+$-pump activity when fumonisin B1 was exposed to LLC-PK1 cells. Fumonisin B1 elevated free sphingoid bases and their 1-phosphates, while total complex sphingolipids were depleted at 20$\mu$M fumonisin B1 during the 3 day exposure. (omitted)

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Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases-12 (MMP-12) and Anti-oxidant Effect of Xanthohumol from Hop (Humulus lupulus L.)

  • Lee, Keyong Ho;Yoon, Won Ho
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.261-265
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    • 2012
  • Xanthohumol was isolated from hops (Humulus lupulus L.), and then investigated anti-oxidant effect by AAPH-induced LLC-PK1 cell and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORCA) assays and MMP-12 inhibitory effect by direct MMP-12 inhibition assay. The treatment of xanthohumol protected LLC-PK1 cells from AAPH-induced cell damage such as cell viability, SOD and GSH-px reduction in a dose dependant manner (0.1, 1, and $5{\mu}M$), the SOD value was 2.98, 4.51, and 5.77 U/mg protein, and GSH-px value was 30.12, 49.32, and 60.11 U/mg protein. ORAC value of xanthohumol was showed as 4320, 12004, and $14209{\mu}M$ TE/g at the concentration 0.1, 1, and $5{\mu}M$, respectively. The change of SOD and GSH-px values was significantly correlated with the results of ORAC assay, that is, AAPH-induced cell and ORCA assays. In addition, inhibition of MMP-12 that is known to play an important role in skin aging was 14%, 37%, 46%, and 79% at the concentration of 0.01, 0.1, 1, and $5{\mu}M$, respectively. On the basis of these results, xanthohumol from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) showed interesting biological and pharmacological activity such as anti-oxidant effect and anti-aging.