• Title, Summary, Keyword: group penalty

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Association of Regional Sexual Assaults with Regional Traits in India (인도의 집단 성폭행 사건들과 지역적 특성의 연관성)

  • Kang, Wee-Dal;Lee, Geo-Lyoung
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.615-622
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    • 2019
  • Recently, reports of cruel group sexual assault in India have been frequently reported. The most prominent group sexual assault incident in India was a medical student, Joti Singh case, that six men raped her and damaged her genitals and organs on a bus and caused her death in 2012. This incident led to the launch and passage of a strong punishment bill including death penalty for sexual assault. But since then, sexual assault is still on the rise. As a result of examining the relations with regional characteristics centering on the areas where sexual assaults occurred, it was found that most of the cases of group sexual assault reported in the media occurred in the mid-north of India, and this was consistent with the region of the Hindu stressed region. If so, it can only be concluded that Hindu fundamentalism, in which female neglect is severe, is the cause. Hindu fundamentalists try to revive the traditional values of women with a strong retroism tendency. In Indian society, women are still at risk of collateral damage. The pursuit of Hindu fundamentalism by the ruling party and political leaders will require much more time to improve the women's social status and human rights.

Passenger Ship Evacuation Simulation using Algorithm for Determination of Evacuating Direction based on Walking Direction Potential Function (보행 방향 포텐셜 함수 기반의 탈출 경로 결정 알고리즘을 이용한 여객선 승객 탈출 시뮬레이션)

  • Ha, Sol;Cho, Yoon-Ok;Ku, Namkug;Park, Kwangphil;Lee, Kyu-Yeul;Roh, Myung-Il
    • Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.307-313
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    • 2013
  • This paper presents a simulation for passenger ship evacuation considering determination of evacuating direction based on walking direction potential function. In order to determine walking direction of a passenger, his/her position in two dimensional plane was adopted as a design variable, and fixed boundaries such as walls and obstacles were adopted as constraints. To solve this optimum problem, a walking direction potential function was adopted as an objective function. This potential function was configured as a kind of penalty function and it contained two components. One is a potential function concerned with the distance to the destination, and other is a potential function based on the effect of walls and obstacles. To determine evacuating direction, this problem was solved by minimizing the walking direction potential function every unit time during the simulation. The crowd behavior of the passenger consisted of the flock behavior, a form of collective behavior of a large number of interacting passengers with a common group. With the proposed algorithm, the test problems in International Maritime Organization, Maritime Safety Committee/Circulation 1238(IMO MSC/Circ.1238) were implemented and the direction of passengers and total evacuation time was analyzed.

Passenger Ship Evacuation Simulation Considering External Forces due to the Inclination of Damaged Ship (손상 선박의 자세를 고려한 여객선 승객 탈출 시뮬레이션)

  • Ha, Sol;Cho, Yoon-Ok;Ku, Namkug;Lee, Kyu-Yeul;Roh, Myung-Il
    • Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.175-181
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    • 2013
  • This paper presents a simulation for passenger ship evacuation considering the inclination of a ship. In order to describe a passenger's behavior in an evacuation situation, a passenger is modeled as a rigid body which translates in the horizontal plane and rotates along the vertical axis. The position and rotation angle of a passenger are calculated by solving the dynamic equations of motions at each time step. To calculate inclined angle of damaged ship, static equilibrium equations of damaged ship are derived using "added weight method". Using these equations, physical external forces due to the inclination of a ship act on the body of each passenger. The crowd behavior of the passenger is considered as the flock behavior, a form of collective behavior of a large number of interacting passengers with a common group objective. Passengers can also avoid an obstacle due to penalty forces acting on their body. With the passenger model and forces acting on its body, the test problems in International Maritime Organization, Maritime Safety Committee/Circulation 1238(IMO MSC/Circ.1238) are implemented and the effects of ship's inclination on the evacuation time are confirmed.

Generalized Sub-optimum Decoding for Space-Time Trellis Codes in Quasistatic Flat Fading Channel (준정적 플랫 페이딩 채널에서 시공간 트렐리스 부호의 일반화된 부최적 복호법)

  • Kim Young Ju;Shin Sang Sup;Kang Hyun-Soo
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea TC
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.89-94
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    • 2006
  • We present a generalized version of principal ratio combining (PRC)[1], which is a near-optimum decoding scheme for space-time trellis codes in quasi-static flat fading environments. In [1], the performance penalty increases as the number of receive antennas increases. In the proposed scheme, receive antennas are divided into K groups, and the PRC decoding method is applied to each group. This shows a flexible tradeoff between performance and decoding complexity by choosing the appropriate K. Moreover, we also propose the performance index(PI) to easily predict the decoding performance among the possible different(receive antenna) configurations.

Establishing the Direction of Healthcare R&D through Private Nonprofit Organizations (민간비영리 조직을 통한 보건의료 R&D 방향 설정)

  • Lee, Byeonghui;Ahn, Bekay;Yoo, Ki-Bong;Kim, Tae Hyun;Kim, Bongshin;Park, Hyunchun;Lee, Yejin;Noh, Jin-Won;Lee, Seung Hoon
    • Korea Journal of Hospital Management
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.74-87
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    • 2017
  • Purposes: The purpose is to establish the direction of healthcare R&D through private nonprofit organization. Methodology: The data is divided into two groups: 12 physicians and pharmacists, and 16 persons including professors related to university donation, non-profit foundation executives. Each group was subjected to two Delphi surveys. To analyze the validity of the opinion, the content validity ratio and the consensus of experts were verified. Findings: Funding should be invested in 'development research' and 'application research'. The factors that hinder the donation culture are 'donation prevention system such as tax imposition system and rebate double penalty system', 'insufficient motivation of fund raising person', and 'lack of fund specializing specialist'. The fund raising strategy should be centered on a small number of large donors or a balance between large and small donors. The fund raising target should be effective to raise funds for corporate and individual donors. It is necessary to clarify the purpose of the social problem to be solved by the campaign strategy for promoting donation, to announce the validity of the trust and transparency of the institution, and to emphasize the social investment by the private sector. Practical Implications: It is necessary to present directions through private nonprofit organizations for the future development of healthcare R&D. The legal and institutional deficiencies of the domestic nonprofit organization fundraising infrastructure should be improved. In order to create a social investment climate, it is necessary to improve the awareness of donations and develop various donation programs for the private sector.

Reducing Appointment No-Shows in Hospitals (병원 예약부도(No-show) 감소를 위한 예약관리 방안)

  • Lim, Ji Hyun;Lee, Sang Gyu;Kim, Tae Hyun;Kim, Ji Man
    • Korea Journal of Hospital Management
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.50-60
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    • 2017
  • Purposes: The purpose of this study was to identify the preferred types of the hospital reservation cancellation management to help reduce the reservation cancellations. Methodology: This study sampled 327 outpatients or their guardians who had reserved a university hospital and a general hospital located in the southwestern part of Seoul, and the responses from 300 of them were used for the final analysis. The subjects' preferences of reservation cancellation management types were analyzed in reference to their demographic variables. The timing and frequency of pre-notification preferred by the subjects were examined. A multidimensional scaling methods and correspondence analysis was used to identify preference for management methods of no-show and type of reservation guide. Findings: As a result, 77.3% of the respondents were perceived that the reservation cancellation was a habit. The most preferred method of managing the reservation cancellation would be refusal to refund the reservation deposit (61.7%), followed by payment for cancellation (16.0%), limit of future reservations (16.0%) and penalty (6.3%) in their order. 186 of the subjects (62.0%) preferred the texting for prevention of reservation cancellations, and 102 of the subjects (34.0%) preferred the phone calls. The preferred timing and frequency of the SMS were twice 3 days before, once a day before and three times 7 days before, while the preferred timing and frequency of phone call was once a day before. Practical Implications: The no-show rate can be improved by enhancing SMS pre-notification and by improving afterwards telephone counseling. For other factors, it needs to study on the service differentiation with the characteristics of each patient group.

Asymmetricity of Optical Phase Conjugation in Optical Transmission Links with Dispersion Management (분산 제어가 적용된 광전송 링크에서 광 위상 공액의 비대칭성)

  • Lee, Seong-Real;Yim, Hwang-Bin
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.35 no.8A
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    • pp.801-809
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    • 2010
  • Limitation of optical phase conjugation for implementation of wideband and long-haul WDM transmission system is symmetric distribution of optical power and local dispersion with respect to optical phase conjugator (OPC). This limitation forces OPC to place at midway of total transmission length. This paper shows that the limitation of optical phase conjugation is overcame by applying optimal net residual dispersion (NRD) into transmission links based in inline dispersion management (DM). Optimal NRD related with OPC position is decided by combination of precompensation and postcompensation. It is confirmed that optimal NRD depends on launch power of WDM channels and system performance criterion as well as OPC position. That is, in case of 1 dB eye opening penaty (EOP) as a performance criterion for WDM channels with 0 dBm launch power, it is confirmed that OPC is allowed to place at anywhere of 1000 km by applying best NRD related with exact OPC position into transmission links. And, it is confirmed that, under 3 dB EOP criterioin for WDM channels with 3 dBm launch power, OPC is allowed to place at 350~700 km by applying NRD between 100 ps/nm and 200 ps/nm into transmission links, though that NRD value is not best combination of precompensation and postcompensation.

A Study on Room Assignment Considering Accessibility in a University Dormitory: A Case Study for University A (공용 공간의 접근성을 고려한 대학 기숙사 공실 배정에 관한 연구: A대학교를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Na Yeong;Lee, Jinho
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.148-154
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    • 2020
  • This study examines room assignments to improve accessibility in a university dormitory depending on the student grade, taking into account frequency of using a certain common space. An integer programming model is presented to minimize the total moving distance from the common space to the students' rooms for accessibility. The model also constrains the maximum capacity of a room, and disallows different grade students to be assigned to the same room. This model is similar to a facility location problem used widely in the supply chain management field. Applying our optimization model to a small group at the dormitory of Unversity A as the case study, our results indicate that lower grade students are assigned rooms closer to the common space due to their higher frequency of using that space to guarantee high accessibility. Moreover, if higher grade students are prioritized to select their rooms, we suggest an objective function that imposes a penalty in cases when lower grade students select rooms with priority. Based on the results obtained, we propose assigning rooms to students in a dormitory by considering their complex requirements and convenience to use the common space.