• Title, Summary, Keyword: the volume functional

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On the critical maps of the dirichlet functional with volume constraint

  • Koh, Young-Mee
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.303-308
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    • 1995
  • We consider a torus T, that is, a compact surface with genus 1 and $\Omega = D^2 \times S^1$ topologically with $\partial\Omega = T$, where $D^2$ is the open unit disk and $S^1$ is the unit circle. Let $\omega = (x,y)$ denote the generic point on T. For a smooth immersion $u : T \to R^3$, we define the Dirichlet functional by $$ E(u) = \frac{2}{1} \int_{T} $\mid$\nabla u$\mid$^2 d\omega $$ and the volume functional by $$ V(u) = \frac{3}{1} \int_{T} u \cdot u_x \Lambda u_y d\omege $$.

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A Rapid Preconcentration Method Using Modified GP-MSE for Sensitive Determination of Trace Semivolatile Organic Pollutants in the Gas Phase of Ambient Air

  • He, Miao;Xu, Qingjuan;Yang, Cui;Piao, Xiangfan;Kannan, Narayanan;Li, Donghao
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.35 no.10
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    • pp.2995-3000
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    • 2014
  • A sensitive concentration method utilising modified gas-purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) was developed. Concentration (reduction in volume) to a microlitre volume was achieved. PAHs were utilised as semivolatile analytes to optimise the various parameters that affect the concentration efficiency. The injection rate and temperature were the key factors that affected the concentration efficiency. An efficient concentration (75.0-96.1%) of PAHs was obtained under the optimised conditions. The method exhibited good reproducibility (RSD values that ranged from 1.5 to 9.0%). The GP-MSE concentration method enhances the volume reduction (concentration factor), leading to a low method detection limit ($0.5-15ngL^{-1}$). Furthermore, this method offers the advantage of small-volume sampling, enabling even the detection of diurnal hourly changes in the concentration of PAHs in ambient air. Utilising this method in combination with GC-MS, the diurnal hourly flux of PAHs from the gas phase of ambient air was measured. Indeed, the proposed technique is a simple, fast, low-cost and environmentally friendly.

Even in Patients with a Small Hemorrhagic Volume, Stereotactic-Guided Evacuation of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Improves Functional Outcome

  • Kim, Young-Zoon;Kim, Kyu-Hong
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.109-115
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    • 2009
  • Objective: The decision to adopt a conservative or surgical modality for a relatively small volume of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) is difficult and often controversial, especially when consciousness is tolerable. The authors examined the results of stereotactic-guided evacuation of SICH for relatively small volumes with respect to functional outcome. Methods: This prospective study was performed on 387 patients with SICH who underwent stereotactic-guided evacuation (n = 204, group A) or conservative treatment (n = 183, group B) during the past 8 years. The primary end-point was recovery of functional status, which was estimated using the Modified Barthel Index (MBI) and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results: All patients had a Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score of $\geq$ 13 and unilateral hemiparesis of less than motor power grade 3. Group demographic characteristics and initial neurological statuses were similar. In all cases, the volume of SICH involved was < 30 cm$^3$ and location was limited to basal ganglia and thalamus. At 6-month follow-ups, MBI was 90.9 in group A and 62.4 in group B (p < 005), and MRS was 1.2 in group A and 3.0 in group B (p < 0.05). Better motor function and stereotactic-guided evacuation had a significant effect on a functional recovery in regression analyses. Conclusion: Even in patients with a small volume of SICH, stereotactic-guided evacuation improved functional recovery in activities in daily life than conservative treatment did.

Influence for Pharmacy Management by Health Functional Food after the Separation of Prescribing and Dispensing Practice (의약분업후 건강기능성식품이 약국경영에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Byung-Chul;Kang, Hyo-Sook;Kwak, Hyun-Soo;Sohn, Uy-Dong
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.45-50
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the best way that health functional food contributes the diversification of pharmacy management at the new point after the separation of prescribing and dispensing practice. In the question of the number of prescription paper, it was more than 200 papers (18.9%), next 100 papers (11.3%). In case of daily total sales volume except prescription fee, it was more than 1,000,000won (28.3%). About the motivation using health functional food, the reason for activation of pharmacy management was 66%. The selling method was mainly by pharmacist recommendation and consumer's need. In comparison with after and before the separation of prescribing and dispensing, more than 60% of subjects answered that sales volume was decreased and no changed. Concerning the ratio of total sales volume to health functional food within 5 years, 66% of subjects expected that it will be increased positively. The type of best pharmacy to handle health functional food was community pharmacy. These results suggest that the handling of health functional food by pharmacist will greatly increase in near futures and will be very important portion for pharmacy management.

Rotor design functional standard of Synchronous Reluctance Motor according to torque/volume using FEM & SUMT (유한요소법과 SUMT를 이용한 동기형 릴럭턴스 전동기의 토크와 부피에 따른 회전자 설계의 함수화)

  • Lee, Rae-Hwa;Lee, Jung-Ho
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers B
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    • v.55 no.11
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    • pp.577-581
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    • 2006
  • This paper deals with an automatic rotor design functional standard computation based on torque/volume for a synchronous reluctance motor(SynRM). The focus of this paper is the design relative to the torque/volume on the basis of each rated watt according to the rotor diameters of a SynRM. The coupled finite elements analysis (FEA) & sequential unconstrained minimization technique (SUMT) have been used to evaluate design solutions. The proposed procedure allows to define the rotor geometric design function according to the rotor diameter and rated watt starting from an existing motor or a preliminary design.

CT Angiography of Collateral Vessels and Outcomes in Endovascular-Treated Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

  • Kim, Beom Joon;Chung, Jong-Won;Park, Hong-Kyun;Kim, Jun Yup;Yang, Mi-Hwa;Han, Moon-Ku;Jeong, Cheolkyu;Hwang, Gyojun;Kwon, O-Ki;Bae, Hee-Joon
    • Journal of clinical neurology
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.121-128
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    • 2017
  • Background and Purpose Measuring the extent of the collateral blood vessels using computed tomography (CT) angiography source images may promote tissue survival and functional gain in acute ischemic stroke patients who are candidates for endovascular recanalization treatment. Methods Of 5,558 acute stroke patients registered in a prospective clinical stroke registry, 104 met the selection criteria of endovascular recanalization treatment for internal cerebral artery or middle cerebral artery main-stem (M1) occlusions and presented for treatment ${\leq}4hours$ after the event. Using CT angiography source images, two independent and blinded reviewers measured the extent of collateral circulations at four regions, with good interrater reliability. The functional recovery at 3 months after stroke was used as an outcome variable. Results Cases with a sufficient collateral circulation at the Sylvian fissure showed significantly increased likelihood of having a modified Rankin Scale score of ${\leq}2$ at 3 months after stroke (adjusted odds ratio=3.03, 95% confidence interval=1.19-7.73, p=0.02), but the association became nonsignificant after adding the infarct volume to the model (p=0.65). The association between leptomeningeal convexity collaterals and functional recovery was no longer significant after adjusting for the infarct volume (p=0.28). The natural indirect effect of infarct volume on functional recovery was significant for both the Sylvian fissure (p=0.03) and leptomeningeal convexity (p=0.02) collaterals. Conclusions The extent of collateral circulation at the Sylvian fissure was significantly associated with functional recovery, which may be mediated via the volume of the final infarction.

pH- and Temperature-Sensitive Bifunctional Hydrogels of N-Isopropylacrylamide and Sulfadimethoxine Monomer

  • Lee, Jin-Woo;Lee, Doo-Sung;Kim, Sung-Wan
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.189-193
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    • 2003
  • pH- and temperature-sensitive bifunctional hydrogels composed of N-isopropylacrylamide (NiPAAm) and a sulfadimethoxine monomer (SDM) derived from sulfadimethoxine were prepared. These hydrogels exhibit simultaneous pH- and temperature-induced volume-phase transitions. The pH-induced volume-phase transition behavior is produced by the ionization/deionization of SDM and is very sharp. In the high pH region, the ionization of SDM induces swelling of the hydrogels. In the low pH region, the deionization of SDM induces deswelling of the hydrogels. The temperature-induced volume-phase transition behavior of the bifunctional hydrogels exhibits negative thermosensitivity because of the NiPAAm component. The hydrogels swell even at low pH as the temperature decreases. The hydrogels swell at low temperature and high pH, and deswell at high temperature and low pH. The volume of the hydrogels dependl on the balance of the swelling and deswelling produced by the two competing stimuli, pH and temperature.

Classification of Urban Arterial Roads Based on Traffic Characteristics (교통특성에 따른 도시간선도로 위계분류법)

  • Lee, Jinsun
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.32-38
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    • 2018
  • Studies on classification of national roads have been continued, but there is little research on the classification of urban arterial roads. Due to the increase of traffic volume, urban arterial roads do not perform well as main roads. In this paper, the function of urban arterial road was established by using cluster analysis using traffic characteristics. Traffic characteristics such as traffic volume, weekend coefficient and speed coefficient were used to establish the functions of 55 main arterial roads in Seoul. The results of this paper are compared with those of the method using AADT. The method using AADT classifies the characteristics according to the traffic volume of the whole lane. In this paper, however, the results are derived using the traffic volume per lane reflecting the actual traffic volume. In addition, the functional classification of the arterial roads in Seoul was compared with the results of this paper to verify that the traffic characteristics were reflected. As a result, the method presented in this paper is more effective in showing traffic characteristics than the current highway functional classification method, and the functional classification system will be helpful for road extension and planning design.

Real time image processing and measurement of heart parameter using digital subtraction angiography (디지탈 혈관 조영장치를 이용한 실시간 영상처리와 심장파라미터의 측정)

  • 신동익;구본호;박광석;민병구;한만청
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.570-574
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    • 1990
  • Detection of left ventricular boundary for the functional analysis of LV(left ventricle)is obtained using automatic boundary detection algorithm based on dynamic programming method. This scheme reduces the edge searching time and ensures connective edge detection, since it does not require general edge operator, edge thresholding and linking process of other edge. detection methods. The left ventricular diastolic volume and systolic volume and systolic volume were computed after this automatic boundary detection, and these Volume data wm applied to analyze LV ejection fraction.

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