• 제목, 요약, 키워드: transportation fuel market

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담합관련 손해배상 소송의 경제분석에서 고려해야 할 이론 및 실증적 쟁점: 수송용 연료시장에의 적용 (Theoretical and Empirical Issues in Conducting an Economic Analysis of Damage in Price-Fixing Litigation: Application to a Transportation Fuel Market)

  • 문춘걸
    • 자원ㆍ환경경제연구
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.187-224
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    • 2014
  • 본 연구에서는 담합의 경제분석에서 고려해야 할 쟁점들을 논의한 후, 이러한 쟁점들을 반영한 방법론을 특정 수송용 연료시장의 분석에 적용하였다. 가상 경쟁가격과 과잉징수를 산정하는 5가지 방법 중 표준시장비교방법에 기반한 회귀분석방법이 최선이다. 수송용 연료시장에서와 같이 국제가격과 환율이 국내가격에 영향을 미치는 제품의 실거래가격을 분석하는 경우 논리에 부합하면서 유연한 함수형태는 로그-로그 함수형태이다. 경제분석의 대상이 되는 자료가 시계열자료인 경우에 ARDL 모형을 시장별 회귀분석모형의 근간으로 채택하는 것이 필요하며, 표준시장비교방법에 기반한 회귀분석방법에서는 구성 회귀식 간에 모수제약이 포함된 ARDL 회귀식 체계를 구축하고 system FGLS로 추정하여야 한다. Friedman 동질성 검정을 통하여 표준시장 여부를 판별할 수 있다. 통계적 유의성은 불확실성 하에서 입증하고자 하는 명제를 확립하는데 요구되는 최소의 요건이다. 담합관련 소송의 경제분석에서는 민감도 분석은 그다지 유용성이 없으며, 최적모형 선별과정이 더 중요한 절차이다. 위 방법론을 특정 수송용 연료시장의 분석에 적용한 결과, 해당 시장에서는 담합에 기인하는 손해액이 없다는 귀무가설을 기각할 수 없었다.

Distributed artificial capital market based planning in 3D multi-robot transportation

  • Akbarimajd, Adel;Simzan, Ghader
    • Advances in robotics research
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.171-183
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    • 2014
  • Distributed planning and decision making can be beneficial from the robustness, adaptability and fault tolerance in multi-robot systems. Distributed mechanisms have not been employed in three dimensional transportation systems namely aerial and underwater environments. This paper presents a distributed cooperation mechanism on multi robot transportation problem in three dimensional environments. The cooperation mechanism is based on artificial capital market, a newly introduced market based negotiation protocol. In the proposed mechanism contributing in transportation task is defined as asset. Each robot is considered as an investor who decides if he is going to invest on some assets. The decision is made based on environmental constraint including fuel limitation and distances those are modeled as capital and cost. Simulations show effectiveness of the algorithm in terms of robustness, speed and adaptability.

Future Urban Transportation Technologies for Sustainability with an Emphasis on Growing Mega Cities: A Strategic Proposal on Introducing a New Micro Electric Vehicle Segment

  • Honey, Emilio;Lee, Hojin;Suh, In-Soo
    • World Technopolis Review
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.139-152
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    • 2014
  • The current transportation regime is largely based on two alternatives: (1) fixed route public transit, and (2) private ownership of internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles per households. This paper analyzes one possible transportation alternative, Micro Electric Vehicles or MEVs, and compares with the ICE vehicles in terms of social, economic and environmental benefits, especially emphasizing its environmental advantage over ICE vehicles for future sustainability. While some representative models of MEVs exist in a limited market capacity, but global technical standards are generally insufficient and non-homogenous across nations, which restricts the development of the proposed transportation sector. The focus of this paper is to analyze the characteristics and potential benefits of MEVs in economical and environmental perspectives, including development status and technical standards, with a particular focus in the E.U., the U.S., Japan, and Korea. Based on the data of analysis, this paper aims to derive and propose a cooperative and adaptive global policy framework designed to speed up adoption and expansion of the global MEV market, including passenger and utility vehicles. We propose MEV to be a new mobility segment in the global transportation market because of their advantage in environmental impact, sustainability, overall cost of ownership, and safety.

국내 수송용 석유제품 시장의 시장구조와 가격행태 (Market Structure and Pricing Behavior in the Korean Transportation Fuel Market)

  • 문춘걸
    • 자원ㆍ환경경제연구
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.311-342
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    • 2015
  • 본 논문에서는 경제이론과 실증분석을 통하여 이명박 정부가 석유제품 시장에 개입한 논거를 평가하였다. 한국을 포함하여 세계적으로 정제산업은 과점이 보편적이며, 역차별적인 수준의 대외 시장개방에도 불구하고 석유제품 시장에서 국내 정유4사의 시장점유율이 높게 지속되는 이유는 정유4사가 국제적인 가격경쟁력을 보유하고 있고 MOPS 가격을 기준으로 경쟁적인 가격책정을 하고 있기 때문이다. 국내 세전 소비자가격은 일본의 가격과 '27개 EU권 국가의 가격들을 가중평균한 값'보다 통계적으로 유의하게 현저히 낮았다. 한국, 일본, 14개 EU권 국가들을 대상으로 가격 비대칭성의 존재여부와 상세내역을 분석한 결과, 휘발유의 경우 한국과 11개 EU권 국가, 경유의 경우 한국과 8개 EU권 국가에서 비대칭성이 있는 것으로 판별되었다. 가격 비대칭성은 다양한 경제 경영적 원인에 의해 다양한 제품과 시장구조에서 발생한다. 소비자 복지의 관점에서는 한국의 세전 소비자가격이 현저히 낮다는 점이 제일 중요하다.

연료원별 온실가스배출량을 고려한 육상교통수단에서의 Modal Shift 효과 (Prediction of Potential $CO_2$ Reduction through Ground Transportation Modal Shift with Fu7el Type and Scenarios)

  • 김초영;이철규;김용기
    • 한국철도학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.521-527
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    • 2011
  • Korea announced GHG reduction goal, 30% reduction compare with 2020 BAU and reduction target for each industry sector is planning. Transportation sector also trying to make effective technical and political counterplan of allocated GHG reduction target such as material lightening, energy efficiency improvement and Modal shift technology and so on. Modal Shift is shifting low energy efficiency vehicle to high energy efficiency vehicle which is economically meaningful under current market conditions. We can get not only energy efficiency improvement but also GHG reduction effect through modal shift. Modal Shift is effectively applying and studied in logistics field in Europe and Japan and one of the Indian companies has been registered CDM project activity involving modal shift from roadways to railways for finished goods. In this study, the scenarios are developed with detail modal shift ratio and fuel type base on state of road and rail use and GHG emission factor for each fuel type from MLTM. This result can be used as basic information to improve policies and promote increasing use of train which is more environment friendly transportation vehicle.

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바이오 디젤의 발전용 연료화 타당성 및 추진전략 (Feasibility Evaluation & Strategy of Replacement of Power Generation Fuel by Using Bio-diesel)

  • 허광범;박정극;임상규;김성철
    • 신재생에너지
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.32-39
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    • 2009
  • Availability of reliable and affordable energy supply is a prerequisite for economic growth. Renewables are the third largest contributor to global electricity production after coal and natural gas and account for a share of 18%. Power generating capacity from renewables has increased to around 900GW by the year 2007. Today biodiesel fuels have been in commercial use in many countries and recently the world-wide biodiesel market has experienced considerable growth, which is partly due to various tax concession programs and other financial incentives. In Korea, biodiesel has already been used for transportation fuel, but not used for power generation fuel yet Korean government has a strategy for renewable energy propagation, especially the goal of power generation amount by renewable energy is 3% of total power production by 2012. This paper focuses on the feasibility study for adaptability and strategy of using biodiesel as power generation fuel. The study also has the plan to replace the fuel of thermal power plant, gas turbine and distributed power system. As the increase of biodiesel fuel, I look forward to environment-friendly power generation and the strategy of Renewable Portfolio Standards(RPS).

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바이오 디젤의 발전용 연료화 타당성 평가 (Feasibility Evaluation & Strategy of Replacement of Power Generation Fuel by Using Bio-diesel)

  • 허광범;박정극;임상규;이정빈
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.806-812
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    • 2009
  • Availability of reliable and affordable energy supply is a prerequisite for economic growth. Renewables are the third largest contributor to global electricity production after coal and natural gas and account for a share of 18%. Power generating capacity from renewables has increased to around 900GW by the year 2007. Today biodiesel fuels have been in commercial use in many countries and recently the world-wide biodiesel market has experienced considerable growth, which is partly due to various tax concession programs and other financial incentives. In Korea, biodiesel has already been used for transportation fuel, but not used for power generation fuel yet. Korean government has a strategy for renewable energy propagation, especially the goal of power generation amount by renewable energy is 3% of total power production by 2012. This paper focuses on the feasibility study for adaptability and strategy of using biodiesel as power generation fuel. The study also has the plan to replace the fuel of thermal power plant, gas turbine and distributed power system. As the increase of biodiesel fuel, I look forward to environment-friendly power generation and the strategy of Renewable Portfolio Standards(RPS).

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우리나라 이동오염원의 제어기술의 동향과 발전방안 (Air Pollutants Control Technique Trends for Transportation Sources in Korea)

  • 김정수;엄명도
    • 한국대기환경학회지
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.477-485
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    • 2013
  • The major source of harmful air pollutants in Korea have been shifted as economy grows. Particulate matter(PM) and Sulfur dioxide ($SO_2$) emitted from industries and coal-fired domestic sectors were important pollutants in 1970's and later industrializing period of Korea. Then the characteristic of pollution was changed into so-called "developed country type pollution". Vehicles have been responsible for significant amount of Nitric oxide ($NO_x$) pollution and consequent Ozone formation in urban area since 1990's. Variety of control measures have been introduced to deal with the vehicle emissions in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). Emission control technologies have successfully reduced pollutants from vehicles. Three-way catalyst for vehicles fueled by gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), for example, has achieved large amount of pollutants. Compressed natural gas (CNG) urban bus have penetrated existing diesel bus market and reduces PM and $NO_x$ emissions in many Korean cities. However, diesel vehicles are still reaming as a critical emission source of urban area. Diesel vehicles gain more popularity than ever because of their better fuel efficiency and driving power. Unfortunately, it is widely known that the pollutant emissions of diesel vehicles are much larger than those of gasoline and LPG vehicles. In this note, we briefly introduce the trends of emission control strategies which are accomplished by automotive industries for about last ten years. Emission regulation, cleaner fuel, diesel particulate filter (DPF) and other measures are discussed from technical as well as legislative perspectives.

국내 부생수소 현황과 수소 유통 인프라 (Status of Domestic Byproduct Hydrogen and Infrastructure)

  • 심규성;김종원;김정덕;황갑진;김흥선
    • 한국수소및신에너지학회논문집
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.330-338
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    • 2002
  • A long-term energy system in the future is expected to be based on the ideal circulation system between water and hydrogen in the sense that the hydrogen prepared from water eventually returns to water again after its use. Currently, with respect to the hydrogen energy system, it is predicted that the turning-point at which the production cost of hydrogen will become to be lower than that of fossil fuels would be after 2010. However, fuel cell technology would be able to be practically used for the applications to the transportation vehicles and small-scale power sources from 2004, and therefore, an efficient construction of the infrastructure covering hydrogen production and supply systems would be required with short-/mid-term technologies for the $CO_2$ reduction associated with fossil fuel utilization. In this paper, the hydrogen quantity available in domestic market has been estimated focusing on the hydrogen by-produced from domestic industries, and also the infrastructure for hydrogen-driven vehicles like fuel cell cars has been reviewed.

바이오 디젤의 발전용 연료화 CDM 평가 (Estimation for CDM of Power Generation by using Bio-diesel)

  • 허광범;박정극;임상규;이정빈
    • 에너지공학
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.132-135
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    • 2009
  • 바이오 디젤과 바이오 에탄올과 같은 바이오 연료의 상용화가 최근 주목할 만하며, 특히 2000년 이후에 그 생산량이 급격히 증가하였다. 세계적으로는 바이오 디젤의 생산량이 83억 리터에 이르고 있다. 유럽이 전체생산량의 80%를 생산하고 있으며, 오늘날 많은 국가에서 바이오 디젤을 상용화하고 있고, 세금감면과 재정적인 인센티브로 세계시장규모가 괄목할 만한 성장을 거두었다. 국내의 경우 이미 수송용 연료로 사용되고 있는 반면에 아직 발전용 연료로는 사용되지 않고 있다. 특히 정부에서는 신재생에너지 확대보급 정책에 따라 2012년까지 전체 발전량의 3%를 신재생에너지로 확보할 계획이다. 따라서, 본 논문에서는 바이오 디젤의 발전용 연료화를 통한 기대효과를 분석하였으며, 현재 운영중인 유류발전소 등에 적용시 기대효과에 대하여 평가하였다.