- Volume 8 Issue 1
This study aimed to investigate the sociocultural phenomena which affected to clothing change in 1650-1900 and to examine the features of men's necktie in the western art. For this study, information about historic neckwear is obtained from the visual evidence of painted or engraved portraits, contemporary written sources. The covered area of this study was Europe mainly England and France. For this process, research steps were as follows : 1. Investigating the sociocultural phenomena which affect to clothing change through 1650-1900 and analysis of men's clothing and appearance. 2. Finding the changing characteristics of neckties including it's different types, shapes, knots, colors and materials and analyzing similarities and differences of neckties by the times. 3. Examining necktie as one of important and representative icons of male gender identity. The results of the study was as follows: 1. In 1660-1900, men's fashion was simplified in color and detail due to the influence of practical Puritanism and matured civil culture. And British men's fashion spreaded throughout whole European countries and get popularity. 2. In 1650-1720, there were band, cravat and steinkirk. And expecially cravatier, a expert custodian of cravats, was appeared in that period. In 1720-1800, there were stock, solitaire and cravat. In 1800-1850, neckwear were popularized and got various sizes and types up to shape and size of chemise collars. Black stock, scarf cravat and shawl cravat were popular and terms of 'necktie' were used for an certain neckcloth shape. And abundant literature for necktie were published thanks to the development of printing technology in that period. In 1851-1900, the leady-made neckties were spreaded and there were changes in shape, length, knot of necktie up to V-zone formed with shirt's collars and vest types. Neckwear was gradually evolving through four distinct styles, bow tie, scarf or neckerchief, Ascot and four-in-hand. 3. After the mid-l7th Century, as civil culture matured and splendid and extravagant colorful men's wear disappeared, British men's fashion spreaded throughout whole European countries and got popularity. The necktie become an essential ornamental accessory of men's fashion and one of important and representative icons of male gender identity.