Onion Beverages Improve Amyloid β Peptide-Induced Cognitive Defects via Up-Regulation of Cholinergic Activity and Neuroprotection

양파(Allium cepa L.) 음료의 콜린성 활성 증가 및 뇌신경세포 보호로 인한 Amyloid β Peptide 유도에 대한 인지장애 개선 효과

  • Park, Seon Kyeong (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Kim, Jong Min (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Kang, Jin Yong (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Ha, Jeong Su (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Lee, Du Sang (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Kim, Ah-Na (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Choi, Sung-Gil (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Lee, Uk (Division of Special Purpose Trees, National Institute of Forest Science) ;
  • Heo, Ho Jin (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University)
  • 박선경 (경상대학교 응용생명과학부(BK21 Plus), 농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 김종민 (경상대학교 응용생명과학부(BK21 Plus), 농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 강진용 (경상대학교 응용생명과학부(BK21 Plus), 농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 하정수 (경상대학교 응용생명과학부(BK21 Plus), 농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 이두상 (경상대학교 응용생명과학부(BK21 Plus), 농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 김아나 (경상대학교 응용생명과학부(BK21 Plus), 농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 최성길 (경상대학교 응용생명과학부(BK21 Plus), 농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 이욱 (국립산림과학원 특용자원연구과) ;
  • 허호진 (경상대학교 응용생명과학부(BK21 Plus), 농업생명과학연구원)
  • Received : 2016.07.11
  • Accepted : 2016.09.02
  • Published : 2016.11.30


To examine the cognitive function of onion (Allium cepa L.) beverages (odourless and fortified), we analyzed in vitro neuronal cell protection against $H_2O_2$-induced cytotoxicity and performed in vivo tests on amyloid beta ($A{\beta}$)-induced cognitive dysfunction. Cellular oxidative stress and cell viability were evaluated by DCF-DA assay and MTT assay. These results show that fortified beverage resulted in better neuronal cell protection than odourless beverage at lower concentration ($0{\sim}100{\mu}g/mL$). Fortified beverage also showed more excellent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity ($IC_{50}$: 4.20 mg/mL) than odourless beverage. The cognitive functions of odourless beverage and fortified beverage in $A{\beta}$-induced neurotoxicity were assessed by Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests. The results show improved cognitive function in both groups treated with beverages. After in vivo tests, cholinergic activities were determined based on AChE inhibition and acetylcholine levels, and antioxidant activities were measured as SOD, oxidized glutathione (GSH)/total GSH ratio, and MDA levels in mouse brain tissue. In a Q-TOF UPLC/MS system, main compounds were analyzed as follows: odourless beverage (five types of sugars and three types of phenolics) and fortified beverages (six types of phenolics and two types of steroidal saponins).

본 연구는 양파의 불쾌치를 저감화시킨 무취음료와 양파 과피 추출물을 첨가한 생리활성 성분 강화음료의 $H_2O_2$로 유도된 산화적 스트레스에 대한 뇌신경세포 보호 효과와 $A{\beta}$로 유도된 인지기능 장애 동물모델에서의 개선 효과를 검증하고자 수행되었다. 뇌신경세포 보호 효과에서는 상대적으로 강화음료에서 무취음료 대비 우수한 산화적 스트레스 억제효과 및 생존율을 나타내었다. $A{\beta}$로 유도된 인지기능 장애 동물모델에 있어 Y-maze, passive avoidance 및 Morris water maze test에서 강화음료가 상대적으로 우수한 학습 및 기억력 개선 효과를 나타내는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 마우스의 뇌 조직에서 강화음료 그룹은 AChE 활성을 저해하고, 신경전달물질인 ACh의 함량을 증가시킴으로써 $A{\beta}$로 유도된 cholinergic system 장애에 있어 개선 효과를 나타내었다. 또한, 마우스 뇌에서 SOD 함량의 증가, oxidized GSH/total GSH와 MDA 함량을 감소시킴으로써 $A{\beta}$와 같은 산화적 스트레스 인자에 대한 뛰어난 항산화 효과를 나타내었다. 최종적으로 무취음료와 강화음료의 주요성분들을 Q-TOF UPLC/MS system을 통하여 분석한 결과, 강화음료의 경우 무취음료보다 생리활성을 가진 2개의 steroidal saponin과 6개의 phenolic 화합물 등이 추가 검출되었다. 이러한 결과들을 종합해볼 때 강화음료는 상대적으로 protocatechuic acid와 quercetin 같은 강력한 항산화 효과를 나타내는 phenolic 화합물과 steroidal saponin 계열에 의한 우수한 인지기능 개선 효과를 기반으로 한 고부가가치 식품으로 활용될 수 있는 산업적 가능성이 있다고 판단된다.



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