• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lysine

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Obtaining the zwitterionic form of L-lysine from L-lysine monohydrochloride by electrodialysis

  • Aghajanyan, A.E.;Tsaturyan, A.O.;Hambardzumyan, A.A.;Saghyan, A.S.
    • Membrane Water Treatment
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2013
  • The process of electromembrane transformation of L-lysine monohydrochlorides into their zwitterionic form in four- and two-chamber electrodialysis apparatus was investigated. The process of transformation at various concentrations of lysine monohydrochloride (0.1-0.6 mol.L-1) was studied and it was established that at the optimum density of current optimal concentrations of lysine hydrochloride during electrodyalisis was in the range of 0.2-0.4 mol.L-1. It was determined that the process of total transformation was accomplished when pH of the lysine solution achieved 10. Changes of concentrations of $Cl^-$ ions and lysine diffused into the neighboring chamber were determined depending on the time. The method developed by us allows adjusting the removal coefficient of $Cl^-$ ions during transformation to a maximal value, the losses of lysine diffused into the next chamber after its return to the technological cycle being less than 1.0 %. The specific energy consumption during the process of transformation in two- and four-chamber electrodialyzers was 0.19 and 0.205 A.h.kg-1 and the current efficiency was 75.9 and 73.1 %, correspondingly. Study of the process of electromembrane transformation allowed obtaining zwitterionic form of L-lysine from L-lysine monohydrochloride with minimal reagent and energy consumption.

EFFECTS OF LYSINE AND ENERGY LEVELS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE THIGH MUSCLE COMPOSITION AND UTILIZATION OF NUTRIENTS IN BROILER CHICKS

  • Park, B.C.;Han, I.K.;Choi, Y.J.;Yun, C.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.129-138
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    • 1992
  • The effects of dietary levels of lysine and energy on growth performance, the content of DNA, RNA and protein in liver, thigh muscle composition and nutrient utilization in broiler chicks were investigated in an experiment involvies with 2 levels of dietary energy : 3,200 (2900) 2,900 (2700) kcal ME/kg) and 6 levels of lysine : 0.6(0.5), 0.8(0.7), 1.0(0.9), 1.2(1.1), 1.4(1.3), and 1.6(1.5)% was carried out. A total number of 384 male broiler chicks was used for a period of 7 weeks. Body weight gain of 1.0(0.9)% lysine level group was significantly (p < 0.01) higher than that of any other groups. Interaction between lysine and energy in the feed intake was observed (p < 0.05). Present data indicate that the content of DNA in liver tissues was significantly (p < 0.05) different by the levels of lysine, namely, 1.0(0.9)% or 1.2(1.1)% lysine level groups showed higher content than other groups (p < 0.01). Dietary levels of 1.2(1.1)% or 1.6(1.5)% lysine groups showed the highest protein content in thigh muscle tissues than that of any other groups (p < 0.05). Interaction between energy and lysine in the content of protein of thigh muscle tissues was shown (p < 0.01). The level of 0.6% lysine group showed the highest fat content in thigh muscle tissues than any other groups. Interaction between lysine and energy in the content of crude ash and crude fat of thigh muscle tissues was observed (p < 0.01). Apparent amino acid availability of arginine, glycine and threonine (p < 0.01), phenylalanine (p < 0.05) were significantly affected by the levels of lysine and interaction between lysine and energy was found only in arginine (p < 0.01).

Effects of Dietary Metabolizable Energy and Lysine on CarcassCharacteristics and Meat Quality in Arbor Acres Broilers

  • Tang, M.Y.;Ma, Q.G.;Chen, X.D.;Ji, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1865-1873
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    • 2007
  • An experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary metabolizable energy (ME) and lysine on carcass characteristics and meat quality in Arbor Acres (AA) broilers from 1 to 56 days of age. A total of 2,970 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to nine dietary treatments (three ME levels in combination with three lysine levels), and dietary ME and lysine concentrations were formulated by varying corn, soybean meal, tallow, and L-lysine sulfate concentrations. Live body weight (BW), carcass weight (CW), dressing percent, breast muscle weight (BMW), yield of breast muscle, muscle color (CIE L*, a*, and b*), pH values 45 min and 24 h postmortem ($pH_{45}$, and $pH_{24}$), meat shear force value (SFV), and water loss rate (WLR) were evaluated. Results showed that live body weight and dressing percent increased (p<0.05) as dietary energy increased. Higher dietary lysine content improved breast muscle weight. Neither carcass weight nor yield of breast muscle was affected by dietary energy or lysine content. Higher ME increased the b* value (p = 0.067) and $pH_{24}$ value (p<0.05), whereas it decreased SFV (p<0.05) and WLR (p = 0.06). Only water loss rate was influenced (p<0.01) by dietary lysine, which was higher in broilers from the high lysine diet as compared to those from medium or low lysine diets. The $pH_{45}$ value and L* value of breast muscle were not affected by ME or lysine. Significant interaction of dietary ME and lysine was found on a* value of breast muscle. These results indicated that dietary ME and lysine had important effects on breast muscle growth and meat quality, however their effects were different. Different concentrations of dietary ME and lysine might be considered to improve meat quality.

Influence on Lysine Production by Overexpression of the ddh Gene in a Lysine-producing Brevibacterium lactofermentum (Brevibacterium lactofermentum에서 ddh 유전자의 Overexpression이 $_L-Lysine$ 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Sun-Hee;Kim, Ok-Mi;Kim, Hyun-Jeong;Bae, Jun-Tae;Chang, Jong-Sun;Lee, Kap-Rang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.224-230
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    • 1999
  • The ddh gene encoding meso-DAP-dehydrogenase (DDH) involved in the dehydrogenase pathway is essential for high-level lysine production in Brevibacterium lactofermentum. To investigate its influence on lysine production by overexpression of the ddh gene in a lysine-producing B. lactofermentum, recombinant plasmid pRK1 and pRK31 containing the ddh gene of B. lactofermentum were constructed and they were introduced into B. lactofermentum by electroporation. Multiple copies of pRK1 and pRK31 caused 7-fold and 14-fold increase of DDH activity in B. lactofermentum cell extracts, respectively. As determined in shake flask fermentation, lysine production of B. lactofermentum harboring pRK1 or pRK31 was 22% or 19% higher than that of the control, respectively.

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Gene Amplification of aceA and aceB in Lysine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum ATCC21799

  • Kim, Hyung-Joon;Kim, Youn-Hee;Lee, Heung-Shick
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.287-292
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    • 1997
  • The role of glyoxylate bypass in lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum ATCC21799 was analyzed by using cloned aceA and aceB genes which encode enzymes catalyzing the bypass. Introduction of a plasmid carrying aceA and aceB to the strain increased enzyme activities of the bypass to approximately 5 fold on acetate minimal medium. The strain with amplified glyoxylate bypass excreted 25% more lysine to the growth medium than the parental strain, apparently due to the increased availability of intracellular oxaloacetate. The final cell yield was lower in the strain with amplified glyoxylate bypass. These changes were specific to the lysine-producing C. glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum ATCC21799, since the lysine-nonproducing wild type Corynebacterium glutamicum strain grew faster and achieved higher cell yield when the glyoxylate bypass was amplified. These findings suggest that the lysine producing C. glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum ATCC21799 has the ability to efficiently channel oxaloacetate, the TCA cycle intermediate, to the lysine biosynthesis pathway whereas lysine-nonproducing strains do not. Our results show that amplification of the glyoxylate bypass efficiently increases the intracellular oxaloacetate in lysine producing Corynebacterium species and thus results in increased lysine production.

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Dietary Lysine Requirement of Juvenile Yellowtail Flounder Pleuronectes ferrugineus

  • Kim, Jeong-Dae;Lall, Santosh P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.1777-1781
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    • 2003
  • The lysine requirements of juvenile yellowtail flounder (Pleuronectes ferrugineus) having 19.5 g initial body weight were estimated by feeding six practical-type diets containing graded levels of lysine (1.21 to 2.69% of dry diet). Dietary amino acid profile simulated that of whole body of yellowtail flounder. Most of amino acids in the diets were provided by corn gluten meal, herring meal and gelatin. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) improved significantly until lysine level increased up to 2.1% (4.3% of protein). Same trend was observed in feed:gain ratio (FGR) which maintained constant in fish groups fed diets containing lysine above 2.1%. The highest nitrogen gain (0.34 g/fish) in whole body was found in fish fed 2.1% lysine, though the value was not different from those of fish fed above the level of lysine. Fish fed 2.1% lysine also showed the best nitrogen retention efficiency of 24.6%. The broken-line analysis of protein efficiency ratio and body nitrogen gain against dietary lysine level yielded an estimated lysine requirement of 2.2% (4.5% of protein) and 2.3% (4.7% of protein), respectively.

Partition of Amino Acids Requirement for Maintenance and Growth of Broilers I. Lysine

  • Kim, J.H.;Cho, W.T.;Yang, C.J.;Shin, I.S.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.178-184
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    • 1997
  • Purified diets containing five graded levels of lysine were fed to a total of 125 growing chicks (25 chicks per treatment) to evaluate lysine requirements for growth and maintenance. A model was developed to separate lysine requirement for maintenance from requirement for growth. Based on weight gain response, the daily lysine requirement for growth was 12.06 mg/g gain and the daily lysine requirement for maintenance was 0.332 times metabolic body size ($W^{0.75}$). Similarly, the lysine requirement for growth was 0.457 mg/mg nitrogen gain and the daily lysine requirement for maintenance was 0.344 times metabolic body size. The plateau of plasma lysine concentration was reached at 354.75 mg intake/day. The total lysine requirement was 414.27 mg/day or 1.0% of the diet, 420.11 mg/day or 1.01% of the diet based on weight gain response and N gain response, respectively. Previous lysine requirements for growing chicks of 1-28 days old were in close agreement with these estimates. As a percentage of protein, lysine requirement was calculated to be 7.3% and the reported lysine content of chick muscle crude protein of 7.46% was closely related.

Effects of Dietary Lysine and Microbial Phytase on Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilisation of Broiler Chickens

  • Selle, P.H.;Ravindran, V.;Ravindran, G.;Bryden, W.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.1100-1107
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    • 2007
  • The effects of offering broilers phosphorus-adequate diets containing 10.0 and 11.8 g/kg lysine, without and with 500 FTU/kg exogenous phytase, on growth performance and nutrient utilisation were determined. Each of the four experimental diets was offered to 6 replicates of 10 birds from 7 to 28 days of age. Effects of treatment on performance, apparent metabolisable energy, apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and bone mineralisation were examined. Both additional lysine and phytase supplementation improved (p<0.05) weight gain and feed efficiency, with interactions (p<0.05), as phytase responses were more pronounced in lysine-deficient diets. Phytase improved (p<0.05) apparent metabolisable energy, which was independent of the dietary lysine status. Bone mineralisation, as determined by percentage toe ash, was not affected by treatment, which confirms the phosphorus-adequate status of the diets. Phytase increased (p<0.05) the apparent ileal digestibility of the sixteen amino acids assessed. Unexpectedly, however, the dietary addition of 1.8 g/kg lysine, as lysine monohydrochloride, increased (p<0.05) the ileal digestibility of lysine per se and also that of isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, valine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and tyrosine. In addition, there were significant interactions (p<0.05) between additional lysine and phytase supplementation for arginine, lysine, phenylalanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine and serine digestibilities, with the effects of phytase being more pronounced in lysine-deficient diets. The possible mechanisms underlying the increases in amino acid digestibility in response to additional lysine and the interactions between lysine and microbial phytase in this regard are discussed. Also, consideration is given to the way in which phytate and phytase may influence ileal digestibility of amino acids.

Effects of L-Carnitine with Different Lysine Levels on Growth and Nutrient Digestibility in Pigs Weaned at 21 Days of Age

  • Cho, W.T.;Kim, J.H.;Han, In K.;Han, Y.K.;Heo, K.N.;Odle, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.799-805
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    • 1999
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of L-carnitine with different levels of lysine on performance of pigs weaned at 21 days of age. A total of 120 pigs were allotted into a $3{\times}2$ factorial design with three different levels of lysine (1.40%, 1,60% and 1.80%) and two levels of L-carnitine (0 and 1,000 ppm). Each treatment had 4 replications with 5 pigs per replicate. Pigs of $22{\pm}1$ days (5.9 kg of body weight) were grouped into a completely randomized block design. Treatments were 1) 1.4-Crt; 1.40% of lysine with 1,000 ppm of L-carnitine, 2) 1.4-N; 1.40% of lysine without L-carnitine, 3) 1.6-Crt; 1.60% of lysine with 1,000 ppm of L-carnitine, 4) 1.6-N; 1.60% of lysine without L-carnitine, 5) 1.8-Crt; 1.80% of lysine with 1,000 ppm of L-carnitine and 6) 1.8-N; 1.80% of lysine without L-carnitine. Growth performance was optimized in pigs fed 1.6% lysine regardless of carnitine addition. For the first 7 days of the experimental period, the best ADG and F/G were found in pigs within the 1.6-Crt group. Carnitine significantly improved (p<0.05) ADG of pigs when the lysine level in the diet was 1.6%. Only in the third week carnitine had a significant influence on growth performance of pigs. A lysine-sparing effect of L-carnitine was not detected in this study. The 1.6-Crt group showed the best proximate nutrient digestibility, and the crude fat and gross energy digestibility were higher when the L-carnitine was added in the diet. Lysine level significantly affected the digestibilities of DM (p<0.001), GE (p<0.001), CP (p<0.01) and C.fat (p<0.05). Carnitine also significantly improved digestibility of nutrients. Lysine level as well as carnitine level affected the amino acids digestibility, however, in 1.8% lysine diet carnitine did not influence on amino acids digestibility. Plasma carnitine content was significant higher (p<0.05) in pigs fed L-carnitine. This indicates the increased biological availability of carnitine within the body. L-carnitine supplementation tended to improve feed utilization during the third week (p<0.10) and during the entire period (p=0.10). Lysine level significantly affected feed utilization of pigs during the third week and entire period (p<0.05). As pigs grew, the lysine requirement was reduced.

Optimal Threonine:Lysine Ratio for Growing Pigs of Different Sexes

  • Chang, W.H.;Lee, J.H.;Heo, K.N.;Paik, I.K.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.1731-1737
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of threonine:lysine ratios on growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, and to estimate the optimal threonine:lysine ratios for growing barrows and gilts. A total of 150 pigs (Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire${\times}$Duroc, $16.75{\pm}0.42kg$ average body weight, 75 barrows and 75 gilts) was randomly allotted into six treatments in a $2{\times}3$ factorial design. Six diets were formulated to contain 1.12% lysine for barrows and 1.33% lysine for gilts with three threonine:lysine ratios (50, 60 and 70%) for both barrows and gilts. Throughout the whole experimental period (16 to 56 kg body weight), there was no interaction between sex and dietary threonine:lysine ratio in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion rate (FCR). Between sexes, there was a clear sex-effect showing better growth performance of barrows. Barrows consumed more feed (p<0.01) and grew faster (p<0.01) than gilts. For barrows, there was a trend to improved ADG and FCR with increasing threonine:lysine ratio. For gilts, there was a trend to improved ADG and FCR up to threonine:lysine ratio of 60%, but not significant. There was no interaction between sex and threonine:lysine ratio in nutrient digestibilities of growing pigs except for crude ash (CA). Between sexes, there were differences in nutrient digestibilities, except for calcium for which gilts showed higher a digestibility (p<0.01). Among dietary threonine:lysine ratios, there were no differences in nutrient digestibilities. Mean values of essential amino acids (EAA), non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and total amino acids (TAA) digestibilities were not affected by sex and dietary threonine:lysine ratio. There was no evidence of an interaction between sexes and dietary threonine:lysine ratio. Between sexes, total BUN concentration was lower in gilts than barrows (p<0.05). It was concluded that a 70 and 60% dietary threonine:lysine ratio for barrows (1.12% lysine) and gilts (1.33% lysine) tended to result in better growth performances and nutrient utilization and lower BUN concentration than other threonine:lysine ratios.