• Title, Summary, Keyword: South-North Korea sea transport

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Economic Integration and the Changes in Logistics Circumstances in Northeast Asia -Emphasizing the Strengthening of Competitive Power of Hub Ports-

  • Park, Byung-Hong
    • Journal of Korea Port Economic Association
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.95-122
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    • 2004
  • This study focuses on analyzing the potentiality of economic integration and the changes in logistics circumstances in Northeast Asia. So far as the changes in logistics circumstances in it, it is emphasized a complex transport system by sea and by land, according to the connection with the Railroad of South-North in Korean Peninsula and the Railroad of the Continent of Siberia. It first considers the propriety of economic integration among Korea, China and Japan in Northeast Asia. The first stage of the economic integration in Northeast Asia means it is started from contracting of FTA(Free Trade Agreement) which just agreed at the Summit Conference among Korea, China and Japan in ASEAN+3(Korea China. Japan). At that time, the Summit Conference between the three countries have agreed to study on the propriety of FTA charging by own country's research organization. At first China has been hesitated to join with FTA in spite of high growth in his economy, because the time is not yet for it. After all, China also decided himself to participate to FTA together with Korea and Japan by reacted to the stimulus at the conference atmosphere between every country of ASEAN. The discussion on the changes in logistics circumstances also is needed to deal simultaneously with a situation in the economic integration in Northeast Asia. It is worthy to be paid our attention to the restoration of the Railroad of South-North in Korean Peninsula, which was disconnected for a long time from the dispute between South Korea and North Korea. Therefore, it needs to be investigated together with the movement of economic integration in Northeast Asia. The reaction on the restoration of the Railroad of South-North in Korean Peninsula is not only limited to the transport of trade cargo between South Korea and North Korea, but also it is reached to all of Northeast Asia, so far as to all of the area of Russia, Europe, and the other neighbor countries. Because this railroad is connected with the Railroad of the Continent of Siberia. The transport of trade cargo in Northeast Asia have been mostly depended upon the transport by sea until now. However, it would be divided into the transport by sea as well as by land from now. As its economic effect, the restoration of the Railroad of South-North in Korean Peninsula could be not only contributed to reduce the cost of logistics within South Korea and North Korea, but also within or without in Northeast Asia, Russia, and Europe. Consequently, it could be improved the power of international competitiveness of goods in Northeast Asia, according to the formation of a complex transport system together with the transport by sea and by land.

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Estimations of modal shift from maritime and air transport to surface transport between China and South Korea : focusing on China's three northeast provinces. (한중간 해상에서 육상으로 화물운송전환수요의 추정 : 동북 3성 지역을 중심으로)

  • Hong, Sung-Wook;Lee, Soon-Cheul
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.1125-1131
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    • 2005
  • This study is based on the assumption of surface transport linkages between Korea and China. Active economic cooperation between South Korea and North Korea are expected within the near future and Russia and China have interested in the land transport linkages in Korean peninsula. How much freight demands between the two countries that has been mainly dependent on air and sea transportation so far may convert the transport mode to surface transportation are estimated. Particularly, freight demands between South Korea and China's three northeast provinces are focused. The sensitivity analysis depends on transport time and transport cost changes is included. The modal shifts is estimated to be more sensitive to the changes in transport costs than those in transport time, suggesting the importance of transport costs of rail and road. Despite the dearth of data on the surface transport operation in North Korea, the attempts made in this study to estimate the demand conversion are hope to provide reference points for potential effects of the rail and road transport connections between China and the Korea peninsula before our discussions expand to the establishment of freight transport network of the northest Asia and, moreover, the Eurasian continent.

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Expanding the Imports of North Korean Fishery Products (북한산 수산물 반입제약요인 및 확대전략)

  • Sung, Souk-Kyung;Hong, Seong-Gul
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.89-105
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    • 2009
  • South Korea imports more than one hundred tons of fishery products every year from China, Japan, North Korea, etc. However, imported North Korean fishery products was only 4% of the total fishery products imported in 2007. Though South-North Trade as inter-Korean trade is exempted from tax, imports of North Korean fishery products have not been activated owing to import restrictions, insufficient quality control etc. Expanding imports of North Korean fishery products seems, however, to contribute to lessen the supply and demand unbalance in fishery products of South Korea. It will especially gratify a part of fresh and cold fishery products demand. Therefore, we need to expand the imports of North Korean fishery products by quality control improvement, reformation of origin certifying system, import liberalization etc. This study researches the demand and supply of fishery products of South and North Korea, the actual conditions of imports of North Korean fishery products, and suggests strategies to expand their imports. As the greatest reason to oppose imports of North Korean fishery products is the pricing pressure of domestically produced fishery products due to imports of North Korean fishery products, we need to research and analyze the distribution channels, retail markets, sales prices of imported North Korean fishery products to verify that imports of North Korean fishery products has not caused lower pricing of domestically produced fishery products.

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A study on the cooperation of Air Transport between South - North Korea (남북한 항공운송협력에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Woong-Yi;Lee, Kang-Seok;Kim, Do-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.143-209
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    • 2005
  • In 1994, the North Korea indicated their intention to open up airspace. The air route passing through from Daegue FIR to Pyungyang FIR has established in 1996. The air transport cooperation between South and North Korea seemed to be reinforced at the event of President Kim, Dae-Jung's visit to North Korea by passing through a temporarily established Yellow Sea Airway in the year of 2000. The nature characteristics of air transport burdening of many circumstantial situations, however, have kept cooperation between South and North Korea from being facilitated till now. Recently as the more exchange between North and South Korea, the more frequent opportunities to discuss economic cooperation, which in sequence increased political credibility has been increased. The rail, road, and port reconnecting has realized which have been regarded impossible. Furthermore, it is expected to transport personnel and goods through South-North direct connected routes in the near future This study shows several meanings of air transport cooperation between South and North Korea. It will be far beyond simply partial air route connecting in this region, it gives great significance to realize economic cooperation and Northeast hub through air transport industry sector. This will be an exit for air transport industry have suffered limits derived from North Korea troubles and difficulties in growing as Northeast air hub. Namely, South-North air connection denote its meaning in providing opportunities Korea to be Northeast Hub and advanced country having globally competitive air transport industry To develop strategy for air transport cooperation between South and North Korea. they were developed by SWOT analysis on the basis of circumstantial analysis. These strategy need to be commanded properly to the changes of surrounded circumstances. The study result show it is desirable to apply phasal strategies by using strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities factors underlying analysis of inner and outer circumstances to cooperate in air transport sector.

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Seasonal and Interannual Variability of the North Korean Cold Current in the East Sea Reanalysis Data (동해 재분석 자료에 나타난 북한한류의 계절 및 경년변동성)

  • Kim, Young-Ho;Min, Hong-Sik
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.21-31
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    • 2008
  • Analyzing the results of East Sea Regional Ocean Model using a 3-dimensional variational data assimilation scheme, we investigated spatial and temporal variability of the North Korean Cold Current (NKCC) in the East Sea. The climatological monthly mean transport of the NKCC clearly shows seasonal variation of the NKCC within the range of about 0.35 Sv ($=0^6m^3/s$), which increases from its minimum (about 0.45 Sv) through December-January to March, decreases during March and May, and then increases again to the maximum (about 0.8 Sv) in August-September. The volume transport of the NKCC shows interannual variation of the NKCC with the range of about 1.0 Sv that is larger than seasonal variation. The southward current of the NKCC appears often not only in summer but in winter as well. The width of the NKCC is about 35 km near the Korean coast and its core is located under the East Korea Warm Current. The North Korean Cold Water (NKCW), characterized by low salinity and low temperature, is located both under the Tsushima Warm Water and in the western side of the maximum southward current of the NKCC that means the NKCC advects the NKCW southward along the Korean coast. It is revealed that the intermediate low salinity water, formed off the Vladivostok in winter, flows southward to the south of $37^{\circ}N$ through $2{\sim}3$ paths; one path along the Korean coast, another one along $132^{\circ}E$, and the middle path along $130^{\circ}E$. The path of the intermediate low salinity varies with years. The reanalysis fields suggest that the NKCW is advected through the paths along the Korean coast and along $130^{\circ}E$.

A Technical Feasibility Analysis on Barge Transportation System between Incheon and Gaesung (인천-개성(공단)간 바아지 항로의 기술적 타당성 분석)

  • Lee, Seung-Hee;Lee, Young-Gill;Choi, Jeong-Chul;Kim, Sang-Hyun
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2007
  • Recently, freight floe between south and north Korea is rising rapidly by increasing cf economical exchange between two Korea and growth of Gaeseoung Industrial Complex. Considering this trend of economic cooperation between two Korea, in addition to a land transportation route it is necessary to secure various logistics and transportation route. A barge transport system which has many merits such as a little initial investment and convenience of harbor loading/unloading has been also used to transport freight widely in the EU and USA. In this paper, firstly, a Gaeseoung industrial complex and its cargo transport are investigated and several candidate shipping routes which are using barge transportation system are proposed. And also we investigate a technical feasibility on a realistic possibility of shipping routes by some investigation activities. Finally, a suitable barge system of candidate shipping route(1) and(2) is proposed in this paper.

A feasibility study on barge transportation system between Incheon and Gaesung (인천-개성(공단)간 바아지 항로의 타당성 조사)

  • Lee, Seung-Hee;Lee, Young-Gill;Choi, Jeong-Chul;Kim, Sang-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research Conference
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    • v.1
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    • pp.283-291
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    • 2006
  • Recently, a logistics between south and north Korea is rising rapidly by increasing of economical exchange between two Korea and growth of Gaeseoung Industrial Complex. Considering this trend of economic cooperation between two Korea, in addition to a land transportation route it is necessary to secure various logistics and transportation route. A barge transport system which has merits such as a little initial investment and convenience of harbor loading/unloading has been also used to transport freight widely in the EU and USA. In this paper, firstly, a social and economical feasibility study is performed about a shipping route which is using barge transportation system between Incheon and Gaesung. And also we propose several candidate shipping route and investigate a technical feasibility on a realistic possibility of shipping service by some investigation activities. Finally, the optimized shipping route and barge transportation system are proposed in this paper.

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Influences of the Sea Surface Wind on Current and Thermal Structures in the Southwestern Part of the East Sea of Korea (동해 남서해역의 해류 및 열구조에 미치는 해상풍의 영향)

  • NA Jung-Yul;PAENG Dong-Guk
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.15-28
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    • 1992
  • Temporal variations of the path of the East Korea Warm Current(EKWC) which flows northward along the east coast of Korea were analysed to investigate whether the EKWC directly influences the existence of the so-called Warm Core in the Ulreung basin. From the 13 years(1975-1987) data of the Fisheries Research and Development Agency(FRDA), the $10^{\circ}C$ isotherm at the 100m depth and the depth of $2^{\circ}C$ isotherm and the temperature field at the 200m depth were used for identification of the path and the central position of the Warm Core. Sea surface winds computed from the surface pressure charts gave the monthly-averaged wind stress curl over the East Sea which was used for determination of the Sverdrup transport. And the mass transport stream functions were computed by use of the Sverdrup balance. The variations of the path show that the EKWC does not always have a fixed path and fluctuates with time. And the existence of the Warm Core is independent upon the presence of the EKWC even when the EKWC doesn't flow northward along the east coast of Korea. In view of the mass transport stream functions, the influences of the sea surface winds on the branching of the Tsushima Warm Currents and the presence of the EKWC were investigated. The presence of the EKWC may be hindered by the southward flow driven by the sea surface winds when the Tsushima currents are rather weak. A very weak correlation exists between the north-south component of the Sverdrup transport and the position of the Warm Core. However, a small but significant part of the southward transport across the latitudinal line of $38^{\circ}N$ indicates that cold water from the northern part of the East Sea may be driven and be forced to flow beneath the permanent thermocline in such a way that the thermal structure of the Warm Core and its position might be changed.

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Transport Paths of Surface Sediment on the Tidal Flat of Garolim Bay, West Coast of Korea (황해 가로림만 조간대 표층퇴적물의 이동경로)

  • Shin, Dong-Hyeok;Yi, Hi-Il;Han, Sang-Joon;Oh, Jae-Kyung;Kwon, Su-Jae
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.59-70
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    • 1998
  • Two-dimensional trend-vector model of sediment transport is first tested in the tidal flat of Garolim Bay, mid-western coast of the Korean Peninsula. Three major parameters of surface sediment, i.e., mean grain size, sorting and skewness, are used for defining the best-fitting transport trend-vector on the sand ridge and muddy sand flat. These trend vectors are compared with the real transport directions determined from morphology, field observation and bedforms. The 15 possible cases of trend vectors are calculated from total sediments. In order to find the role of coarse sediments, trend vectors from sediments coarser than < 4.5 ${\phi}$, (sand size) are separately calculated from those of total sediments. As compared with the real directions, the best-fitting transport-vector model is the "case M" of coarse sediments which is the combined trend vectors of two cases: (1) finer, better sorted and more negatively skewed and (2) coarser, better sorted and more positively skewed. This indicates sand-size grains are formed by simpler hydrodynamic processes than total sediments. Transported sediment grains are better sorted than the source sediment grains. This indicates that consistent hydrodynamic energy can make sediment grains better sorted, regardless of complicated mechanisms of sediment transport. Consequently, both transported vector model and real transported direction show that the source of sediments are located outside of bay (offshore Yellow Sea) and in the baymouth. These source sediments are transported through the East Main Tidal Channel adjacent the baymouth. Some are transported from the subtidal zone to the upper tidal flat, but others are transported farther to the south, reaching the south tidal channel in the study area. Also, coarse sediment grains on the sand ridge are originally from the baymouth, and transported through the subtidal zone to the south tidal channel. These coarse sediments are moved to the northeast, but could not pass the small north tidal channel. It is interpreted that the great amount of coarse sediments is returned back to the outside of the bay (Yellow Sea) again through the baymouth during the ebb tide. The distribution of muddy sand in the northeastern part of study area may result from the mixing of two sediment transport mechanisms, i.e., suspension and bedload processes. The landward movement of sand ridge and the formation of the north tidal channel are formed either by the supply of coarse sediments originating from the baymouth and outside of the bay (subaqueous sand ridges including Jang-An-Tae) or by the recent relative sea-level rise.

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Trace Metals in Airborne Particulates Collected at Cheju Island, Korea (제주도 대기 분진 중 미량금속의 농도 특성)

  • 최만식;박은주
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.727-738
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    • 1999
  • Total 76 aerosol samples were collected at Sungsan in Cheju Inland by high volume air sample for 1 year, from May 1995 to April 1996, and were analyzed for major elements(Na, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe) and trace elements(Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb, U) by ICP/AES and ICP/MS. This study aims to determine the concentrations of trace metals and their seasonal variations in the atmosphere of Cheju Island, where is the remote area from pollution sources and also is the midway of transport of Asian continental materials into the western North Pacific. The concentrations of Na and Mg contributed by sea-salt aerosols were similar to those in the western part of Cheju island(Kosan) and in the western coast of Korea(Mallipo). They showed the highest value in summer and the lowest in spring and winter. Crustal metals(Al, Fe, Ca, Mn, Co, U) were 2~3 times lower than those of Mallipo. These metals showed the lowest values in summer and the highest in spring. Pollution-derived metals (Zn, Cd and Pb) were 2~4 times lower than those in Malipo. Some elemental ratios in aerosols grouped by three wind directions(north-northwest, east, and south-southwest) such as Fe/Al and Pb/Zn are presented as useful tracers indicating source areas, and their differentiation may be explained by geology and fuel types of source areas.

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