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The Effects of Monacolin - Inoculated Rice Embryo on the Body Fat and Serum Lipid Profiles of Obese Elementary School Students (홍국균접종 쌀배아 섭취가 중등도 비만 초등학생의 체지방 및 혈중지질의 개선에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang Soon Ah;Kwoun Soon-Ju;Choi Young-Sook;Lim Yoongho;Park Dong Ki
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.565-573
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Monacolin-inoculated rice embryo on the body fat and serum lipid profiles in 61 obese elementary school students. The subjects divided into two groups 31 obese children had the experimental diet (rice embryo inoculated Monacolin) and 30 obese children had the control diet three times a day after meals. The mean age, height, weight, and BMI of 61 subjects were $10.5\pm0.5$ years, $143.6\pm6.8cm,\;55.0\pm8.9kg,\;and\;26.1 \pm3.9$, respectively. The changes of body fat mass (kg) in experimental group and control group after 6 weeks were -0.60kg and -0.03kg, respectively. The changes of body fat $(\%)$ in experimental group and control group after 6weeks were $-1.44\%\;and\;-0.25\%$, respectively. These changes of body fat in experimental group were significantly higher than in control group (p<0.05). The change of total-cholesterol in experimental group and control group during 6weeks were -17.52mg/dL and -1.70mg/dL, respectively. The change of LDL-cholesterol in experimental group and control group during 6 weeks were -17.06mg/dL and - 2.80mg/dL, respectively. The change of triglyceride in experimental group and control group after 6 weeks were -9.58mg/dL and 11.67mg/dL. Total-cholesterol, LDL- cholesterol and triglyceride of experimental group after 6 weeks significantly decreased compared to control group (p<0.05). After experimental diet (6 weeks), total-cholesterol was negatively correlated with body water contents, soft lean mass and fat free mass (p<0.05). Triglyceride showed a significantly positive correlation with body weight and body fat mass, however, it was negatively correlated with fat free mass (p<0.05). HDL-cholesterol showed a significantly positive correlation with fat free mass (p<0.05). These results show that Monacolin-inoculated rice embryo is effective in decreasing body fat and blood lipid in obese children.

A review of osteosarcopenic obesity related to nutritional intake and exercise

  • Lee, Namju
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.797-803
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    • 2019
  • Recently, osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) has been identified and notified world wide. Therefore, this study reviewed OSO related to lifestyle factors such as nutritional intake and exercise. Due to aging, OSO may be initiated by dietary factors and obesity related factors. Reduced muscle mass and increased fat mass may negatively impact bone health causing OSO. The complication of OSO development should be related to dietary imbalance combined with declined exercise and this may contribute to induce OSO by decreasing bone mass, muscle mass, and increasing obesity with aging. To prevent OSO, reaching peak bone mass and building optimal muscle and fat mass through exercise would be recommended. For treating OSO, balanced dietary intake and regular exercise through a whole life would be needed. In addition, sufficient carbohydrate and fat intake for minimizing protein catabolism would be recommended to prevent OSO. The combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training also would be an effective intervention for OSO population.

Correlation study between Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk Factors (비만과 심혈관 질환 위험인자와의 상관관계 분석 -건강검진 대상자를 중심으로-)

  • Cho, Tae-Young;Cho, Hyun-Chol;Hong, Seo-Young;Song, Yun-Kyung;Lim, Hyung-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.33-43
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    • 2004
  • Background: Recently obesity has become a social problem in all over the world including Korea. It is known that obesity is closely related with cardiovascular disease. Many studies are carrying out in the relation between several obesity indices, such as body mass index(BMI), waist-circumference(WC), body fat percent and risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Objective: This study was done in order to investigate correlation of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. Method: We gathered totally 138 subjects who have taken health screening test in university hospital. With the exception of 40 abnormal cases on current illness and laboratory study, 98 healthy cases were analysed. We divided the groups as normal, overweight, obese group according to body mass index $(22.9kg/m^2\;and\;below\;/\;23{\sim}24.9kg/m^2\;/\;25kg/m^2\;and\;above)$and investigated the relationship between obesity based on body mass index(BMI) and cardiovascular risk factors. And investigated the relationship between each cardiovascular risk factor and body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body fat percent. Results: With the exception of blood pressure, other lab data such as total cholesterol, triglycerid, glucose were significantly different between the three groups divided by body mass index$(22.9kg/m^2\;and\;below\;/\;23{\sim}24.9kg/m^2\;/\;25kg/m^2\;and\;above)$. And Correlation coefficient of cardiovascular risk factors with body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body fat precent were acquired. Conclusion: We have concluded that the body mass index and waist-hip ratio body fat precent were predictive factors cardiovascular disease.

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Change of Bone Mineral Density after Kirindiet therapy in Middle-Aged Obese Women under Normal Bone Mineral Density (정상골밀도이하 중년비만여성환자의 기린다이어트시 골밀도 변화)

  • Choi, Young-Min;Sim, Woo-Jin;Kim, Kil-Soo;Yoon, Yoo-Sik;Shin, Seung-Uoo
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.47-56
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : This study was performed to investigate the change of bone mineral density(BMD) after 1 month Kirindiet therapy including very low calory diet(VLCD) in middle-aged obese women$(65>age{\geqq}40,\;BMI{\geqq}25)$ under normal $BMD(T-score{\leqq}0)$. Methods : We examined body weight, body fat, protein mass and BMD of 13 middle-aged obese women who visited to Kirin Oriental Hospital from Sep. 7. 2004 to Oct. 12. 2005 before and after 1 month Kirindiet therapy. Body weight, body fat and protein mass was checked by Inbody 4.0 and BMD was checked by quantitated computed tomography. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for analyzing changes of body weight, body fat, protein mass and BMD before and after treatment. Results : Alter 1 month treatment body weight(-4.89Kg, -6.74%, p=0.001), body fat(-3.47Kg, p=0.001) and protein mass(-0.97Kg, p=0.006) was significantly reduced. BMD was significantly increased in all cases(+4.87mg/cc, +4.16%, p=0.001). Though body weight, body fat and protein mass were significantly reduced, BMD was significantly increased(p<0.01). Conclusions : In this study, we can conclude that after 1 month Kirindiet therapy including VLCD, BMD in middle-aged obese women under normal BMD was significantly increased inspite of reduction of body weight, body fat and protein mass.

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Body composition: A predictive factor of cycle fecundity

  • Kayatas, Semra;Boza, Aysen;Api, Murat;Kurt, Didar;Eroglu, Mustafa;Arinkan, Sevcan Arzu
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.75-79
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    • 2014
  • Objective: To study the effect of body composition on reproduction in women with unexplained infertility treated with a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intrauterine insemination programme. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted on 308 unexplained infertile women who were scheduled for a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intrauterine insemination programme and were grouped as pregnant and non-pregnant. Anthropometric measurements were performed using TANITA-420MA before the treatment cycle. Body composition was determined using a bioelectrical impedance analysis system. Results: Body fat mass was significantly lower in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women ($15.61{\pm}3.65$ vs. $18.78{\pm}5.97$, respectively) (p=0.01). In a multiple regression analysis, body fat mass proved to have a stronger association with fecundity than the percentage of body fat, body mass index, or the waist/hip ratio (standardized regression coefficient${\geq}0.277$, t-value ${\geq}2.537$; p<0.05). The cut-off value of fat mass, which was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristics curve, was 16.65 with a sensitivity of 61.8% and a specificity of 70.2%. Below this cut-off value, the odds of the pregnancy occurrence was found to be 2.5 times more likely. Conclusion: Body fat mass can be predictive for pregnancy in patients with unexplained infertility scheduled for a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intrauterine insemination programme.

Effects of Modified Fasting Therapy Using Fermented Herbal Medicine on Changes of Body Compositions (발효한약을 이용한 절식요법이 체성분 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jung-Min;Hong, Seo-Young
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.33-43
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of modified fasting therapy using fermented herbal medicine on the changes of body compositions. Methods : This study was carried out on 11 patients who carried out modified fasting therapy using fermented herbal medicine. They went through reducing food intakes period(7 days), fasting period(10~14 days) and refeeding period(10~14 days). Body compositions(weight, BMI(body mass index), skeletal muscle mass, body fat mass, percent body fat, basal metabolic rate, waist-hip ratio, visceral fat area) were measured at each state. And then the data was analyzed. Results : 1. The weight and BMI decreased during the reducing food intakes period and the fasting period, and increased during the refeeding period. But the weight and BMI decreased during the fasting therapy period, as a whole. 2. The skeletal muscle mass decreased during the fasting period and increased during the refeeding period. As the final outcome, for the whole fasting therapy period, decrease of skeletal muscle mass didn't show significance. The body fat mass and percent body fat decreased during the reducing food intakes period, the fasting period and the refeeding period. 3. The basal metabolic rate decreased during the fasting period and increased during the refeeding period. As the final outcome, for the whole fasting therapy period, decrease of basal metabolic rate didn't show significance. 4. The waist-hip ratio decreased during the fasting period and the refeeding period. The visceral fat area decreased during the fasting period and refeeding period. Conclusions : Results from this investigation showed that modified fasting therapy using fermented herbal medicine have positive effects on changes of body compositions. This results are expected to compensate the defects of existing fasting therapy.

Effects of the Aquatic Exercise Program on Body Fat, Skeletal Muscle Mass, Physical Fitness and Depression in Elderly Women (수중운동 프로그램이 여성노인의 체지방, 골격근량, 체력 및 우울에 미치는 효과)

  • Song, Min-Sun;Kim, Soo-Keun;Yoo, Yong-Kwon;Kim, Hee-Jung;Kim, Nam-Cho
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.276-282
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a aquatic exercise program on body mass index, body fat percentage and skeletal muscle mass, physical fitness using SFT (senior fitness test) and depression in elderly women. Methods: This study included 59 elderly women. Aquatics exercise program was performed three times per week for 12 weeks using rating of perceived exertion and body mass index, body fat percentage, skeletal muscle mass, physical fitness and depression were measured before and after exercise program. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test. Results: Body mass index (p=.002) and body fat percentage (p=.021) were significantly decreased after aquatic exercise program. Chair stand (p=.009), 2 minute step test (p<.001), back scratch (p<.001), and chair sit and reach (p<.001) were significantly increased after the aquatic exercise program. But, there was no significant differences in the depression. Conclusion: It is suggested the aquatic exercise program may play a significant role in improving body fat and physical fitness in the elderly women. However, as well as aquatic exercise program, sustained encouragement are required to improve physical and psychological traits.

The Relationship Between Bone mineral Density and The Environmental Factors in Korean Pubescent Girls (한국 사춘기 소녀들의 골밀도와 환경요인들과의 관계(II))

  • 최미자
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.41-51
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    • 1995
  • Bone mass accretion during puberty appears to be critical in the development of peak bone mass. Although bone density of females in Korea has been studied, only a few studies have related bone mass with anthropometric patterns or puberty in the pubescent girls. This study was conducted as part of a study of major determinants of bone development during puberty. Subjects were aged 14∼16 yr(mean 14.97), and had no history of disorders or dedication use likely to influence bone or calcium metabolism. Bone mineral density and content were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Lunar DPX+Scanner (Lunar Madison, WI). Also, total body fat, and total lean body mass were assessed using a Lunar DPX dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer, Pubertal status was assessed according to the Marshall and Tanner guidelines. Serum levels of osteocalcin was measured by RIA using a commercial kit assay. Skinfold measurements were taken with a skinfold caliper(Lange Caliper, USA). Data were analyzed using the regression and GLM procedure of the statistical package SAS. The results indicated that the observed means for lumbar spine BMD and femoral BMD correspond to approximately 91% and 96% of the means for young adult females, respec tively. All subjects were menarchal, with the majority being in the middle to end stages of pubertal development. Total body BMD was positively related to fat mass(P<0.001), lean body mass and time since menarche, and negatively related to urine pyridinoline, serum alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. The data indicate that girls who reported lower age for menarche had significantly higher bone densities than girls who reported higher age for menarche. Attaining peak skeletal bone mass during puberty may reduce the incidence of osteoporosis in later life. this finding suggests that early menarche may augment peak bone mass, influencing the extent of bone loss later in adulthood. The results suggest that good nutrition in childhood appears to be needed not for growth and development, but possibly also to assure an optimal peak of bone mass and thus greater latitude for the maintenance or skeletal integrity in the face of bone losses. Troeps skinfold thickness was a better predictor of total BMD and total BMC than was any other skinfold thickness. The study did not find a relationship between total BMD and body fat %, but total fat was significantly positively related to total BMD(r=0.49) and total BMC(r=0.60). It supports earlier report that there was a significant correlation between TBMD and body weight. Conclusively, total fat, lean body mass and pubertal development could influence BMD in pubescent girls. Clearly, longitudinal studies are required to assess the effect of puberty on peak bone mass, and to define further the potential determinants of peak bone mass.

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A Study of Measurement of the Fat Contents in Korean Youths by Mean of Skinfold Methods (한국청년층(韓國靑年層)의 총지방양측정(總脂肪量測定)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Cha, Chul-Hwan;Park, Soon-Young;Cho, Kwang-Soo;Hyun, Ho-Sup;Lee, Young-Il
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.29-40
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    • 1971
  • For the measurement on the fat content if University Students, an intensive examination was conducted on a total of 3,030 students(male 2,577, female 453), from 16 to 25 years of age. The subjects were all students who had passed the written entrance examination for Seoul National University. Total Body Fat amount was measurement by skin-fold thickness with a skin-fold caliper(Manufactured by Cambridge Scientific Industrial Inc. U.S.A.) at four sites of the body, and it was calculated by Kim's and Lee's regression equation. As a result of this survey, the following conclusions were obtained; 1. Physical Measurements: i) The average of body height by anthropometric was male $167.95{\pm}4.85cm$ and female $156.03{\pm}4.56cm$. ii) The average body weight by anthropometric was male $56.42{\pm}5.65kg$ and female $51.29{\pm}5.34kg$. iii) The average of chest-girth by anthropometric was male $89.95{\pm}5.33cm$ and female $81.36{\pm}4.89cm$. iv) The average of sitting-height by anthropometric was male $91.23{\pm}4.98cm$ and female $86.18{\pm}4.15cm$. v) The average of arm circumference by anthropometric was male $23.76{\pm}2.17cm$ and female $22.39{\pm}1.79cm$. In all cases the male measurements were higher than the female. 2. The mean skin-fold thickness measured with a large skin-fold caliper was; At the sub-scapular: male $11.54{\pm}4.84mm$ and female $14.07{\pm}4.49mm$, Abdominal: male $10.36{\pm}7.09mm$ and female $14.95{\pm}5.47mm$, Lumbar; male $12.55{\pm}6.44mm$ and female $17.02{\pm}6.57mm$, Upper arm: male $6.28{\pm}3.71mm$ and female $11.62{\pm}3.99mm$, Total average: male $10.18{\pm}5.52mm$ and female $14.41{\pm}5.13mm$, in all cases the female measurements were higher than the male. 3. Data on body fat amounts according to body fat weight regression equation were: in male: Fat weight=10.56kg, Fat free weight=45.86kg, Fat weight/Total body mass(%)=18.71%, (Body fat amount %), Fat weight/Fat free weight(%)=23.02%, Fat free weight/Total body mass(%)=81.29%. in female: Fat weight=12.23kg, Fat free weight=39.06kg, Fat weight/Total body mass(%)=23.85%, Fat weight/Fat free weight(%)=31.31%, Fat free weight/Total body mass(%)=76.15%. The females value was higher than the males.

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Combined Trial of Fish Oil and Exercise Training Prevents Impairment in Insulin Action on Glucose Transport of Skeletal Muscle Induced by High-Fat Diet in Rats

  • Lee, Ji-Hyun;Kim, Jong-Yeon;Kim, Yong-Woon;Park, So-Young;Youn, Woon-Ki;Jang, Eung-Chan;Park, Deok-Il;Kim, Suck-Jun;Kim, Eun-Jung;Lee, Suck-Kang
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.91-97
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of the present study was to determine the preventive effects of combined interventional trial of fish oil treatment and exercise training on insulin resistance of skeletal muscle in high-fat fed rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into chow diet (CD), high-fat diet (HF), high-fat diet with fish oil (FO), high-fat diet with exercise training (EX), and FO+EX groups. The rats in control group were fed chow diet containing, as percents of calories, 58.9% carbohydrate, 12.4% fat, and 28.7% protein. High-fat diet provided 32% energy as lard, 18% as corn oil, 27% as carbohydrate and 23% as casein. The fish oil diet had the same composition as the high fat diet except that 100 g menhaden oil was substituted for corn oil. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by in vitro glucose transport in the soleus muscle after diet treatment and treadmill running for 4 weeks. While the FO or EX only partially prevented insulin resistance on glucose transport and visceral obesity induced by high-fat diet, these interventions completely corrected hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia from the high-fat diet. The rats in the FO+EX showed normalized insulin action on glucose transport, plasma chemicals and visceral fat mass. Insulin-mediated glucose transport was negatively associated with total visceral fat mass (r=-0.734; p<0.000), plasma triglyceride (r=-0.403; p<0.05) and lepin (r=-0.583; p<0.001) concentrations with significance. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that only total visceral fat mass was independently associated with insulin-mediated glucose transport (r=-0.668; p<0.000). In conclusion, combined interventional trial of FO+EX recovered insulin resistance on glucose transport of skeletal muscle induced by high-fat diet. Visceral fat mass might be more important factor than plasma TG and leptin to induce insulin resistance on glucose transport of skeletal muscle in high-fat fed rats.

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