This study empirically compared generational differences in responses between baby boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y groups as measured by key variables related to advertisement. The respondents in this study were consumers throughout Korea, with 914 survey questionnaires used for the final analyses. Eight of the original 10 hypotheses were validated and two were rejected. Both baby boomer consumers and Generation Y consumers showed more positive responses to affective advertisements than their Generation X counterparts. Generation Y consumers showed more positive attitudes towards humorous advertisements than their baby boomer and Generation X counterparts. The effect of advertising models on the evaluation of advertisements was greater among Generation Y consumers than their Generation X counterparts. Generation Y consumers showed more positive attitudes towards storytelling-type marketing than their baby boomer and Generation X counterparts. Baby boomer consumers showed more positive attitudes towards symbolic advertisements than their Generation X and Generation Y counterparts. Generation X consumers showed more positive attitudes towards functional advertisements than the baby boomer and Generation Y groups. There were significant differences in attitudes towards two types (symbolic and functional) of advertisements in both baby boomer consumers and Generation X consumers.
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the nature and relationship of attitudes of mothers and their daughters concerning the value of children. the secondary interest was to compare this study with the American studies done by Bormann & Stockdale(1979), and Leavy & Hough(1983). Subjects for the study were college-age daughters their married sisters, and their mothers. The“Fawcett Opinions about Children Questionnair”was used to measure beliefs about children. Pearson Product Moment Correlations were computed for mother-daughter(married), mother-daughter(unmarried), and daughter(married)-daughter (unmarried) on each of nine subscales on value of children. To study the generation differences and marriage differences, matched sample t-test were carried. Several significant relationships were found for mother-daughter (married), daughter(married)-daughter (unmarried) pairs. Only one significant relationship was found for mother-daughter(unmarried) pairs. Significant differences were found between mother's group and daughters' groups on most subscales except one or two (generation effect). Significant differences were found between married daughters and unmarried daughters on 4 subscales(marriage effect). The results did not corroborate the findings of American studies which revealed the lack of congruence between mother and daughter attitudes. It was noted that as daughters had children themselves, their attitudes toward children had become more congruent with their mothers. There was also evidence to support the generation differences between mothers and daughters values. It was concluded that both value similarity and generation differences vary as a function of the particular events as well as age-itself.
The purposes of this research were to find out general trends of family value orientations among adolescent, middle and old generation and to investigate the differences according to related variables. For this study, three kinds of questionnaire were used and the data were obtained through 1194 samples of three generation groups living in Seoul and Kwangju. The traditional trends of old generation's value orientations were outstanding while adolescents relatively showed modernized value orientations. The value differences between adolescent and middle generation were larger than between middle and old generation. Especially value orientations of children and sex-role were largely changed, but familism was relatively preserved even in adolescent generation. The family value orientations differed significantly according to gender, age, eduaction level, income, occupation, and family type. Generally middle and adolescent women showed more modernized value orientatons than men and value orientations of three generation were most likely to be correlated with family satisfaction level.
The purpose of this study is to find the difference between the parents generation and that of the children in the disciplinary methods by means of parental social population variation. With these purpose in mind, the problems have been suggested like following: 1) what are the general differences of between the two generations of parents and children in disciplinary method? 2)What are the general differences of the views between those two generations according to sex? 3) What are the general differences between the parents generation and the child generation according to age? 4) What are the general differences between the parents generation and the child generation according to education level? 5) What are the general differences between the parents generation and the child generation according to income level? In order to solve these problems, questionnaries were distributed on this appendix 374parents (father: 177, mother: 197) who have the children. Questionnaires were compose on "Parents Inventory" of Radke were employs, classfied five measures. To test and verifying the above hypothes, the following five measures. were used. 1) Philosophy of authority (authoritarian vs. democratic) 2) Parental restrition (strict and stubbon vs. democratic) 3) Severity of punishment (severity vs. mildness) 4) Parent-child rapport 9desirable vs. undesirable) 5) Relative responsibility of father and mothehr towards child disciplinary (equal vs. differ) The result of this study is like follows: 1) In general comparison of two generations, tends to be more democratic in the philosophy of authority, more relaxed and easygoing in the parental restroction, more severe in the severity of punishment, and good rapport in the parent-child rapport than grandparents generation and the responsibility of father don't change but that of mother tends to augment in child disciplinary 2) In comparison of two generation according to sex, the mother showed more democratic in the philosophy of authority and closely perceive her parents in the parent-child rapport as compared with the father. 3) In comparison of two generation according to age, the younger parents showed more relaxed attitudes towards the child disciplinary, the perception better relations of their parents in the parent-child rapport. 4) In the comparison of two generations according to education level the more educated parents showed the more relaxed and easygoing attitude towards in the parental restriction. 5) In comparison of two generation according to income, as the parents of large income generally (not always) showed easygoing than their previous generation in the parental restriction, and they perceive that they have a good one in parent-child rapport. This study caused by the some difficult problem required futher investigation on the result of two generations the problems happened in the inner unitary of items. And, it proposed some problems which constitutes the problems of the proper interpretation of the results between two generations brought about discordance of items between tow generations
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
The purposes of this study were 1) to identify the differences between the sexes in the perception of sexuality in jeans fashion advertising, 2) to find out the differences between the high and low sexy advertisements and the differences between the groups which had different orientation of the characteristics of new young generation in preferences of advertisements and intentions to purchase product in sexy fashion advertising. The data were collected using questionnairs which contained nine advertisements of Guess Jeans, from 441 college students (female= 225, male= 216) living in Seoul, Korea participated in the study and the data were and analyzed by paired 1·test and t-test. The results of this study were as follows: First, there were significant differences between male and female in the perceptions of sexuality in jeans advertisements. Second, by paired t-test, male preferred highly sexy advertisement to low sexy advertisement, and female's intention to purchase product was higher in the advertisement of high sex appeal than that of low sex appeal. Third, there were partially significant diferences between two groups which had different orientation of the characteristics of new young generation in preferences of sexy advitisements. The differences of intentions to purchase product between two groups were significant in highly sexual advertising. But in low sexual advertising, the significant differences between two groups were not found in advertisement preferences and intentions to purchase products.
The purposes of this study was to identify the differences between fashion opinion leaders and followers in the characteristics oriented New Young Generation and the types of fashion advertising involvement. The data were collected via a questionnaire from 431 college students(female=218 male=213) living in Seoul, Korea and analyzed by factor analysis and t-test. The results of this study were as follows: First, eight factors of the characteristics oriented New Young Generation were identified: Fashion, individuality, preference of caffe with affective mood, expression of emotion, indivisualism, preference of tastes oriented Western Europe, activity of pan club and chatting by personal computer. The significant differences between fashion opinion leaders and followers in fashion, individuality, preferences of the caffe with affetive mood, and expression of emotion were found in the data collected from female. There were significant differences between fashion opinion leaders and followers in fashion, individuality in the data collected from male. Second, three factors of fashion involvement advertising were identified: The hedonic involvement, social involvement, utilitarian involvement. The significant differences between fashion opinion leaders and followers in the hedonic involvement, social involvement, utilitarian involvement and the levels of involvement were found in the case of female's data. There were significant differences between fashion opinion leaders and followers in the hedonic involvement, social involvement and levels of involvement except for utilitarian involvement in the case of male's data.
The difference of generation is the main cause of society transition. If we know about the gap of generations, then we know where we go in future. This study focus on the differences of a regulation recognition among the generations. When we understand the differences of regulation recognition among the generations, we can realize the trait of regulation in society. In result, there are a lot of differences of regulation recognition among the generations. The older they are, the more they are positive to regulation. And the younger they are, the more they are negative to regulation. In particular, 50's generation have the opposite regulation recognition to 20's generation in specialty of regulation and in a conglomerate regulation.
The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern and perception of food consumption, mass restaurant use, drinking style, and food purchasing factors by cohort groups i. e., World Cup(W) generation, baby boom, and silent generation. Data were collected from 412 respondents including three generations by questionnaire method in April through May 2002. Analysis of variance and chi-square results indicate that there were significant differences among three generation groups for the pattern and perception of food consumption, the use of mass restaurant, preferred drinking style, and influencing factors for food purchasing. W generation are more likely to be influenced by sensibility factor than baby boom and silent generation. Considering food preference pattern, baby boom as well as silent generation prefer green vegetables than meats, and they must have Kimche when having meals. Similarities and differences in perceptional pattern types are discussed, and future implications for food and nutrition specialists and food marketers are provided.
Journal of the Korea Fashion and Costume Design Association
Modern fashion shows the trend of various styles and the period focusing on only product functions is changed to the period focusing on consumer's sensibility. Consumers show different sensitivities and preference by individual at the stage cognizing and recognizing the stimulation of given image and the method of objective measurement based on the fashion sensible vocabularies is necessary to measure fashion sensibility. Therefore, this research is significant to examine differences of preference to classic fashion by generation and awareness for sensible vocabularies and suggest methodology of design sensible evaluation research through the quantitative evaluation objectifying subjective sensibility. For the method of research, precedent theses related to classic, concept and characteristics of classic in books and definition and characteristics by generation were examined, the best 3 domestic portal sites were selected and adjective vocabularies and images related to classic were collected from 2010 to 2014. Among the 206 adjectives collected, vocabularies whose average is more than 3.5 were drawn by 5-point Likert scale for fashion expert group. And, among the total 306 images collected, 21 representative images were selected by preliminary investigation of fashion expert group. For the classic images and vocabularies selected, frequency analysis, factor analysis and variance analysis were conducted by SPSS 19.0. The results of analysis are as follows. Preference to classic fashion image by generation was analyzed. As a result, both of two generations selected classic fashion as the most classic one. The images of the next orders were analyzed. As a result, Y generation selected basic classic fashion image which is casual with high activity as a classic one. Baby boom generation selected ancient classic fashion image, so there were differences in preference for classic by generation. As a factor analysis on classic adjective vocabularies, they could be divided into 5 factors such as basic form, attractive form, traditional form, vintage form and active form and they verified that credibility of all measuring variables for classic sensible vocabularies was achieved. Differences of classic sensible vocabularies by classic fashion image and generation were examined. As a result, generation and classic fashion image made a significant effect on five factors. Therefore, there were differences of the awareness on classic fashion images and sensible vocabularies among the generations and this thesis can be a fundamental material which objectifies subjective sensibility and suggests the methodology of new research.
Objective: With the introduction of third-generation light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in dental practice, it is necessary to compare their bracket-bonding effects, safety, and efficacy with those of the second-generation units. Methods: In this study, 80 extracted human premolars were randomly divided into eight groups of 10 samples each. Metal or polycrystalline ceramic brackets were bonded on the teeth using second- or third-generation LED light-curing units (LCUs), according to the manufacturers' instructions. The shear bond strengths were measured using the universal testing machine, and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) was scored by assessing the residual resin on the surfaces of debonded teeth using a scanning electron microscope. In addition, curing times were also measured. Results: The shear bond strengths in all experimental groups were higher than the acceptable clinical shear bond strengths, regardless of the curing unit used. In both LED LCU groups, all ceramic bracket groups showed significantly higher shear bond strengths than did the metal bracket groups except the plasma emulation group which showed no significant difference. When comparing units within the same bracket type, no differences in shear bond strength were observed between the second- and third-generation unit groups. Additionally, no significant differences were observed among the groups for the ARI. Conclusions: The bracket-bonding effects and ARIs of second- and third-generation LED LCUs showed few differences, and most were without statistical significance; however, the curing time was shorter for the second-generation unit.
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