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RAPD Variation and Genetic Distances among Tibetan, Inner Mongolia and Liaoning Cashmere Goats

  • Chen, Shilin;Li, Menghua;Li, Yongjun;Zhao, Shuhong;Yu, Chuanzhou;Yu, Mei;Fan, Bin;Li, Kui
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.1520-1522
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    • 2001
  • Relationship among Tibetan cashmere goats, Inner Mongolia cashmere goats and Liaoning cashmere goats was studied using the technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). One primer and four primer combinations were screened. With the five primers and primer combinations, DNA fragments were amplified from the three breeds. Each breed has 28 samples. According to their RAPD fingerprint maps, the Nei's (1972) standard genetic distance was: 0.0876 between Tibetan cashmere goats and Inner Mongolia cashmere goats, 0.1601 between Tibetan cashmere goats and Liaoning cashmere goats, 0.0803 between the Inner Mongolia cashmere goats and Liaoning cashmere goats. It coincides with their geographic location. The genetic heterogeneity of Tibetan cashmere goats, Inner Mongolia cashmere goats and Liaoning cashmere goats is 0.3266, 0.2622 and 0.2475 respectively. It is also consistent with their development history.

Investigation of Goats' Milk Adulteration with Cows' Milk by PCR

  • Cheng, Yeong-Hsiang;Chen, Su-Der;Weng, Ching-Feng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1503-1507
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    • 2006
  • Goats' milk adulteration with cows' milk is becoming a big problem. In the past, the urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis assay with different motility of ${\alpha}S1$-casein has been applied for the identification of cows' milk adulteration. The detection sensitivity is 1.0%. The aim of this study was to develop a faster and more sensitive method to detect cows' milk which may be present in adulterated goats' milk and goats' milk powder. The published primer was targeted at highly conserved regions in bovine mitochondrial DNA (a 271 bp amplicon). This amplicon was cloned and sequenced to further confirm bovine specific sequence. The chelex-100 was used to separate bovine somatic cells from goats' milk or goats' milk powder samples. Random sampling of different brands of goats' milk powder and tablets from various regions of Taiwan showed the adulterated rate was 20 out of 80 (25%) in goats' milk powders and 12 out of 24 (50%) in goats' milk tablets. With this system, as low as 0.1% cows' milk or cows' milk powder in goat milk or goat milk powder could be identified. This chelex DNA isolation approach provides a fast, highly reproducible and sensitive method for detecting the adulteration of goats' milk products.

The Effect of Roughage Source on Voluntary Feed Intake and Digestibility in Korean Native goats (조사료원이 한국 재래산양의 섭취량과 소화율에 미치는 영향)

  • 조익환;황보순;전기현;송해범;안종호;이주삼
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.82-88
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    • 1997
  • A study was carried out to evaluate the values of roughages available in Korea on feed intake and digestibility of Korean native goats and consequently to apply its results to the feeding system of Korean goats as a basic information. The results are as follows. 1. The protein contents in Alfalfa and Acacia leaf were 17.6 and 16.3% respectively 11.7 and 6.8% higher than orchardgrass and pine needle. Ether extract tom pine needle was about two times higher than other roughage sources which are 9.2%. 2. Dry matter intake per day in goats fed alfalfa, acacia leaf and orchardgrass was higher (P < 0.05) at 590.3, 543.8 and 496.58 respectively and 217.lg in pine needle. 3. Dry matter intake per basal weight (DM glkg of B$W^{0.75}$ and DM g/kg of BW%) was higher in goats fed acacia leaf at 68.5 and 3.5% respectively than any other treatments goats fed pine needle showed the lowest (P< 0.05) dry matter intake at 28.6 and 1.5% respectively. 4. Dry matter digestibility was highest (PcO.05) in alfalfa fed goats at 61.4%. Dry matter digestibilities in orchardgrass, pine needle and acacia leaf were 58.0, 46.8 and 46.6% respectively. 5. Total digestible nutrients were highest (P< 0.05) in Alfalfa fed goats at 59.5%. Total digestible nutrients in orchardgrass, pine needle and acacia leaf were 54.2, 50.7 and 47.7% respectively. 6. In conclusion, the value of orchardgrass as feed for goats was as excellent as alfalfa and although acacia leaf had a less value than alfalfa in goats, it is considered to be used as a protein supplement in diets for goats due to its high content of protein and excellent palatability. Intake of pine needle in Korean goats in this study was satisfactory and it indicates the possibility of its use as a supplement in diets for goats. However, fkther investigation will be necessary particularly on the deleterious effects of ether extracts of pine needle

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Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats

  • AL-Suwaiegh, S.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.509-515
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    • 2016
  • Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance.

Hormonal Profiles during Periparturient Period in Single and Twin Fetus Bearing Goats

  • Khan, J.R.;Ludri, R.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.346-351
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    • 2002
  • The effect of fetal number (single or twin) on plasma concentrations of progesterone, estradiol $17{\beta}$, cortisol, prolactin, growth hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and insulin around parturition (periparturient period) were studied on ten $Alpine{\times}Beetle$ crossbred goats in their first to third lactation. The hormone profiles were studied on days -20, -15, -10, -5, -4, -3, -2, -1 prior to kidding and on day 0 and +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +10, +15, +20 days postkidding. Plasma progesterone levels were significantly (p<0.01) higher in twin bearing goats comparison to single bearing goats during all the days of sampling. The decline in progesterone concentration from day 20 to day 1 before kidding was 56% in twin and 42% in single bearing goats. In single bearing goats plasma estradiol $17{\beta}$ was significantly (p<0.01) higher during prekidding days compared to twin bearing goats. The level of estradiol $17{\beta}$ was highest on the day of kidding in both the groups. The plasma prolactin level in twin bearing goats from day 10 to day 1 prepartum was higher as compared to single fetus bearing goats. However there was abrupt increase in prolactin level on the day of kidding in both the groups. The plasma growth hormone levels were significantly (p<0.01) higher in twin compared to single bearing goats. On the day of kidding growth hormone levels were significantly (p<0.01) higher in twin as compared to single bearing goats (1.40 vs. 0.95 ng/ml). In twin bearing goats plasma cortisol values from day 5 till the day of kidding remained elevated and the levels on the day of kidding was significantly highest in both the groups. The levels of triiodothyronine ($T_3$) were significantly higher (p<0.01) during all the periods of sampling in single compared to twin bearing goats. Plasma thyroxine ($T_4$) was significantly (p<0.01) lower in twin compared to single bearing goats. In single bearing goats plasma insulin levels were significantly (p<0.01) higher than twin bearing goats during prepartum period however during post partum period the levels in both the groups remained similar. It can be concluded that number of fetuses is having significant influence on the hormone profile during periparturient period.

Studies on the efficacy of anthelmintics to goats infected with internal parasites (내부기생충 감염 흑염소의 각종 구충제 효능에 관한 연구)

  • 박노찬;도재철;김수웅;송해범
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.439-449
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    • 1998
  • From September 1997 to August 1998, Korean indigeous goats infected with internal parasites were examined for efficacy of anthelminthics by fecal egg counts. Efficacy of anthelmintic drugs against gastointestinal Haemonchus contortus in goats were effective with Ivermectin(94.9%), Piperazine(92.8%), Levamisole(88.3%), Albendazole(68.2%), respectively. Albendazole was effective against goats with Haemonchus contortus in 3 herds, but not effective in 1 herds. Efficacy of anthelmintic drugs against gastointestinal Paramphistomim sp in goats were effective with Ivermectin(95.3%), Piperazine(93.3%), Albendazole(92.9%), Levamisole(91.1%), respectively. Efficacy of anthelmintic drugs against Eimeria sp in goats were effective with Toltrazuril(92.6%), Diclazuril(90.4% ), Nicarbazin (87.5%), Amprolium(70.0%), respectively. Amprolium was effective against goats with Eimeria sp in 3 herds, but not effective in 1 herds.

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Changes of Liver Function In Korean Black Goats Dosed wit Carbon Tetrachloride and 1-naphthylisothiocyanate (한국흑염소에 있어서 사염화탄소와 1-naphthylisothiocyanate 투여시의 간기능 변화)

  • Im Jung-Sik;Choi Hee-In
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.381-390
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    • 1990
  • In order to study the effects of administration of carbon tetrachloride(CCI$_4$) and 1-naphthylisothiocyanate(ANIT) on the liver of Korean black goats, some liver function tests and liver biopsy were done on 4 Korean black goats dosed with CCI$_4$(0.4m1/kg of body weight) in-traruminally and 4 Korean black goats dosed with ANIT(400mg/kg of body weight) by stomach tube. BSP Tl/2 and serum total bilirubin concentration in goats dosed with CCI$_4$ were increased gradually, reached to maximum value on 2nd and 1st day, respectively, and then began to decrease in normal range, gradually. In goats dosed with ANIT, BSP Tl/2 and serum total bilirubin concentration were increased rapidly, reached to maximum value on 0.5 and 1st day, respectively, and then returned to normal ragne, rapidly. Serum SDH, AST and GGT activities in goats dosed with CCI$_4$ were increased rapidly and reached to maximum value on 3rd, 1st and 2nd day, respectively. Thereafter, the serum enzyme activities began to decrease in normal range gradually. In goats dosed with ANIT, however, serum SDH, AST and GGT activities were not changed. The histopathologic changes in goats dosed with CCI$_4$ were lipidosis and centrilobular nee-rosis of the hepatic parenchyma. In goats dosed with ANIT, hyperplasia of bile duct epithelium was noticeable, but pathologic changes in liver parenchyma were not noticed. Conclusively, in Korean black goats dosed with CCI$_4$, main finding was necrosis of hepatic parenchyma. In Korean black goats dosed with ANIT, main finding was cholestasis.

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Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in native Korean goat in Jeonbuk province (전북지역 염소에서 Coxiella burnetii 감염실태 조사)

  • Gang, Su-Jin;Jeong, Jae-Myong;Kim, Hyun-Kwan;Lee, Jae-Wook;Shon, Ku-rye;Park, Tae-Wook
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.239-246
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    • 2016
  • The prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in native Korean goats in Jeonbuk province was investigated using ELISA (sera) and PCR (vaginal mucus). A total of 798 blood samples from 189 farms were collected in 2013 and 2015. Seroprevalence was 13.6% in 2013 and 15.7% in 2015. Tracking survey of six seropositive farms on the prevalence of C. burnetii was conducted. 137 (41.4%) out of 331 goats were seropositive and 47 (17.6%) out of 267 goats were positive in PCR. The higher seropositivity observed in adult goats and female goats significantly, the seroprevalence of C. burnetii was higher as age increased (<1 y=13.2%~${\geq}5$ y=100%)(P<0.05) and female goats (44.8%) was higher than male goats (24.1%) on the seroprevalence (P<0.05). 21 (7.9%) goats positive in PCR was seronegative. The prevalence of C. burnetii in native Korean goats in slaughter house was 30.0% in ELISA and 11.5% in PCR. Significantly, female goats (62.8%) was higher than male goats (12.3%) on the seroprevalence (P<0.05). Based on these data, C. burnetii was easily exposed in domestic animals: native Korean goats-related areas such as farms and slaughter house.

Assessment of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein profile in milk for early pregnancy diagnosis in goats

  • Singh, Shiva Pratap;Natesan, Ramachandran;Sharma, Nandini;Goel, Anil Kumar;Singh, Manoj Kumar;Kharche, Suresh Dinkar
    • Animal Bioscience
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.26-35
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    • 2021
  • Objective: This study was conducted to assess the level of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) in whole and skim milk samples, and its suitability for early pregnancy diagnosis in goats. Methods: A two-step sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system for estimation of milk PAG was developed and validated, which employed caprine-PAG specific polyclonal antisera. Whole and skim milk samples (n = 210 each) from fifteen multiparous goats were collected on alternate days from d 10 to d 30, and thereafter weekly till d 51 post-mating. PAG levels in milk samples were estimated by ELISA and the pregnancies were confirmed at d40 post-mating by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS). Results: The level of PAG in whole and skim milk samples of both pregnant and nonpregnant goats remained below the threshold values until d 24 after mating. Thereafter, PAG concentration in whole and skim milk increased steadily in pregnant goats, whereas it continued below the threshold in non-pregnant does. The PAG profiles in whole and skim milk of pregnant goats were almost similar and exhibited strong positive relationship (r = 0.891; p<0.001). Day 26 post-mating was identified as the first time-point for significantly (p<0.05) higher milk PAG concentration in pregnant goats than to non-pregnant goats. When compared to TRUS examination for pregnancy diagnosis, the accuracy and specificity of PAG ELISA using whole and skim milk samples were 94.5% and 95.4%; and 95.3% and 100%, respectively. The high values of area-under-curve (0.904 [whole milk] and 0.922 [skim milk]), demonstrate outstanding discrimination ability of the milk assays. Among the sampling dates chosen, d 37 post-mating was identified as the best suitable time point for collection of milk samples to detect pregnancy in goats. Conclusion: The PAG concentration in whole and skim milk of goats collected between days 26 and 51 post-breeding can be used for the accurate prediction of pregnancy and may be useful for assisting management decisions in goat flocks.

Yeast Culture and Vitamin E Supplementation Alleviates Heat Stress in Dairy Goats

  • Wang, Lizhi;Wang, Zhisheng;Zou, Huawei;Peng, Quanhui
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.814-822
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of yeast yeast culture (YC) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation on endotoxin absorption and antioxidant status in lactating dairy goats suffering from heat stress (HS). Three first lactation Saanen dairy goats (body weight $30{\pm}1.5kg$) were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, mesenteric vein and carotid artery, and were randomly assigned to a $3{\times}3$ Latin square design. Dietary treatments were the basal diet, and the basal diet supplemented with either 100 IU VE or 30 g YC. Goats were kept in temperature and humidity-controlled room at $35^{\circ}C$ from 8:00 to 20:00 and at $24^{\circ}C$ from 20:00 till the next morning at 8:00. The relative humidity was kept at 55%. HS increased dairy goats' rectum temperature and respiration frequency (p<0.01). HS reduced plasma flux rate of milk goats (p<0.01), but the plasma flux rate increased when the animal was under the conditions of the thermo-neutral period (p<0.01). The VE supplementation lowered dairy goats' rectum temperature during thermo-neutral period (p<0.01). Meanwhile, no significant differences were observed between the control and YC treatment in rectum temperature and respiration frequency (p>0.05). Dietary supplementation of VE and YC reduced heat stressed dairy goats' endotoxin concentration of the carotid artery and portal vein (p<0.01). However, the endotoxin concentration of the YC treatment was higher than that of the VE treatment (p<0.01). Both VE and YC supplementation decreased heat stressed dairy goats' absorption of endotoxin in portal vein (p<0.01). The endotoxin absorption of YC treatment was higher than the VE treatment (p<0.01). The addition of VE and YC decreased dairy goats' superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration during HS and the whole experiment period (p<0.01). The addition of VE lowered SOD concentration during thermo-neutral period (p<0.01). Likewise, the addition of VE and YC lowered dairy goats' malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration during HS and the whole experimental period, and the MDA concentration in the VE treatment was lower than the YC treatment (p<0.05). The addition of VE decreased MDA concentration during thermo-neutral period. On the contrast, the addition of VE increased dairy goats total antioxidant potential (TAP) concentration during HS, thermo-neutral and the whole experimental period (p<0.01). The addition of YC increased TAP concentration only during HS period (p<0.01). It is concluded that both VE and YC are useful in alleviating HS of dairy goats by weakening endotoxin absorption and promoting antioxidant capacity. Compared with YC, VE is much more powerful in easing dairy goats HS.