Immunomodulatory and anti-metastatic activities of a crude polysaccharide isolated from Korean apple vinegar

한국산 사과식초에서 분리한 다당의 면역 및 항전이 활성

  • Kim, Han Wool (Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyonggi University) ;
  • Shin, Kwang-Soon (Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyonggi University)
  • 김한울 (경기대학교 식품생물공학과) ;
  • 신광순 (경기대학교 식품생물공학과)
  • Received : 2019.01.14
  • Accepted : 2019.01.31
  • Published : 2019.04.30


To characterize new physiologically active components in Korean apple vinegar, a crude polysaccharide (KAV-0) was prepared by precipitation with 80% (v/v) ethanol. KAV-0 mainly comprises 38.2% mannose, 19.1% galactose and 14.3% glucose. In an in vitro cytotoxicity analysis, KAV-0 promoted the proliferation of peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and showed no cytotoxicity in B16-BL6 melanoma cells. Murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 cells stimulated by KAV-0 produced various cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor $(TNF)-{\alpha}$, and nitric oxide (NO). Intravenous (i.v.) administration of KAV-0 significantly augmented NK cell cytotoxicity against Yac-1 tumor cells. In experimental lung metastasis caused by B16-BL6 melanomas, prophylactic i.v. administration of KAV-0 at a dosage of $1,000{\mu}g/mouse$ inhibited lung metastasis by 53.0%. These results suggest that the crude polysaccharide (KAV-0) isolated from Korean apple vinegar has a considerably high anti-metastatic activity and immunomodulatory activities beneficial to human health.

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Fig. 1. Isolation of (immuno-stimulating) polysaccharide (KAV- 0) isolated from Korean apple vinegars (A), and elution pattern and MW-determination of KAV-0 on HPSEC (B).

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Fig. 2. Effect of KAV-0 on viabilities of murine peritoneal macrophages, RAW 264.7 and B16-BL6 melanoma cells.

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Fig. 3. Effect of KAV-0 on cytokines and nitric oxide production by RAW 264.7 cells. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with indicated concentrations of KAV-0 for 24 hr.

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Fig. 4. Effect of KAV-0 on cytokines and nitric oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophage in vitro.

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Fig. 5. Effect of KAV-0 on cytolytic activity of NK cells ex vivo.

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Fig. 6. Inhibitory effect of KAV-0 on lung metastasis produced by i.v. inoculation of B16-BL6 melanoma cells.

Table. 1. Chemical properties of KAV-0 isolated from apple vinegar

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Supported by : 경기대학교


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