• Title, Summary, Keyword: 차량측정마찰계수

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A Study on the Application of Runway Friction Measurements (활주로 마찰계수 측정 및 적용에 관한 연구)

  • Noh, Kun-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.62-68
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    • 2016
  • According to the accident/incident reports of aircraft runway overruns and excursions, it generally shows runway friction reduction and aircraft braking capability deterioration are the basic causes due to adverse weather. Although surface of paved runway gets wet, it also should give good friction capability. If runway surface is worn due to long time usage and friction capability is reduced due to rubber accumulation or weather conditions(snow, rain, ice etc.), airport authorities should rapidly measure friction coefficient and give them to relevant persons through aeronautical information system and support safe takeoff and landing. Operation wise, these information of friction coefficient reduction should be lead to aircraft performance adjustments, but the data from manufacturer(performance manual) are airplane braking coefficient and the data from airport authorities are vehicle measured braking coefficient. But these two data are considered as the same meaning although the definite relationship between them is not clarified yet. So I am trying to search for the technical background of these two data and suggest reasonable method to use them efficiently.

Uncertainty of Measurements in the Analysis of Vehicle Accidents (차량 사고 분석에서 측정의 불확실성)

  • Han, In-Hwan;Park, Seung-Beom
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.119-130
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    • 2010
  • Reconstruction analysis of traffic accident is done by analyzing diverse data such as the road, accident traces and damage on the automobile. Most data can be a variable in the process of analysis, and measurement error of the data occurs from the investigator, tool and the given environment. Therefore, accident analysis always has some risks of measurement uncertainty. This research quantify the uncertainty in traffic accident analysis by conducting repetitive measurement experiments for variables with high probability of uncertainly such as length (i.e. geometric structure of the road, tire marks) and coefficient of friction. This paper also suggests an analysis result for the uncertainly of photographic observation of automobile crush measurement. These statistical distributions can help determine appropriate ranges for the input data in order to estimate the accident reconstruction uncertainty.

The Experimental Study on the Transient Brake Time of Vehicles by Road Pavement and Friction Coefficient (노면 포장별 차량의 제동경과시간 및 마찰계수에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Lim, Chang-Sik;Choi, Yang-Won
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.30 no.6D
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    • pp.587-597
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    • 2010
  • When a car accident occurs, people who had an accident are not free from civil and criminal issues so that the accident investigator should reenact and analyze the accident situation accurately. In addition, the obtained documents through the analysis of such car accident occurrence and related factors have to be used to carry out the improvement of the areas that has numerous car accidents and complementary actions. The vehicle speed, accelerating force, braking power are currently known as the most affecting factors in accordance with many car accidents, traffic facilities, road design, etc. The vehicle's performance and rode friction coefficient road surface friction coefficient are affecting the most closely in this field. Especially, once the estimate of the speed of the accident moment relating to main eleven articles of Traffic Accident Exemption Law is very important and accuracy is required. However, currently the researches of these matters have not made exclusively yet in Korea. In this study by reflecting this current situation, until the sudden braking history is found from the car's sudden braking, it estimates accurately the transient brake time and rode friction coefficient by measuring a time of transient brake time through the precision speed detector (Vericom VC2000PC). The analysis of the experimental results calculated the transient brake time and friction coefficient to fit into the purpose of this study in the basis of different kind of various special purpose asphalt pavement and slip-prevention pavement and provided the fundamental data.

Relationships Between Pre-Skidding and Pre-Braking Speed (활주 직전과 제동 직전 속도의 상관관계 규명에 관한 연구)

  • Ryu, Tae-Seon;Jeon, Jin-U;Park, Hong-Han;Lee, Su-Beom
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.43-51
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    • 2009
  • This paper investigates the accuracy of vehicle pre-braking speed estimates based upon tire/roadway coefficient of friction (drag factor) measurements and skid mark measurements Data for pre-braking and pre-skidding speeds were collected to determine if there were any correlations between pre-braking speeds and pre-skidding speeds. Braking tests were performed on two vehicles using various measurement devices including a fifth wheel, a speed gun, and a vericom 2000. The vehicle speeds, braking distances, skid mark distances, and deceleration histories were recorded. From these data. coefficients of friction and vehicle pre-skidding speeds for the tested road surface were calculated. The pre-skidding speeds were then compared to the actual pre-braking speeds of the vehicles in order to establish relationships between pre-skidding and pre-braking speed. A correlation between the Pre-skidding speed and the actual pre-braking speed was established for the study data.

Analysis of pneumatic braking component effects and characteristics of a diesel electric locomotive (디젤전기기관차의 공압제동 영향인자 및 특성 분석)

  • Choi, Don Bum;Kim, Min-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.541-549
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    • 2018
  • This paper deals with the braking dynamic behavior of diesel electric locomotive pulling domestic cargo and passenger vehicles. Friction coefficient, pneumatic pressure, and running resistance affecting the braking system were tested. For the friction coefficient, the Dynamo test was performed with reference to UIC 541-4. The results are analyzed by multivariate regression and the relationship between braking force and ititial velocity is presented. The pneumatic pressure were classified into service braking and emergency braking. In order to reflect the characteristics of the brake valve and piping, the pressure rising over time was measured in the vehicle. In order to reflect the external force acting on the vehicle, we carried out the test of EN 14067-4 and presented the second order polynomial formula on a running resistance. The running resistance test results were compared with other countries. The dynamic behavior of a diesel electric locomotive running on a straight flat track based on vehicle resources, friction coefficient, braking pressure, and running resistance is simulated using the time integration presented in EN 14531-1. The simulation results were compared and verified with the vehicle braking test results. The results of this study can be used to analyze the dynamic braking behavior of a train. Also, it is expected that various parameters affecting braking in vehicle design can be analyzed and used as basic data for braking performance improvement.

A Study on Train Braking Performance Assessment Methods Using Braked Weight Percentage (제동중량비율을 이용한 도시철도차량 제동성능 평가방법 연구)

  • Choi, Don-Bum;Lee, Kang-Mi;Yoon, Yong-Ki
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.545-551
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we evaluate the braking performance of an urban railway vehicle to verify its basic safety condition. The braking performance evaluation methods, deceleration measurement and braked weight percentage, were compared for trains with different numbers of cars, in order to assess the advantages of each method and their compatibility. With a probabilistic braking model, the effect of the adhesion coefficient distribution was analyzed in accordance with the train composition. A train with many cars has a narrower deceleration distribution width than one with few cars. The braked weight percentage method is expected to be useful in the design of train signal systems, because it allows the braking distance to be calculated for various initial brake velocities. The deceleration distribution model and its results are expected to be useful as a basis for precise train signal design.

Analysis of braking characteristics of electric multiple unit for train control system (열차제어시스템을 위한 전동차 제동특성 분석)

  • Choi, Don Bum;Oh, Sehchan;Kim, Min-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.887-895
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    • 2018
  • This paper presents a braking model that can be used to design the safety distance of a train control system and a train braking system to increase the volume of traffic. For the braking model, a train set (electric multiple unit composed 6 cars) was tested. The factors that can affect the braking characteristics include the friction coefficient, braking pressure, and regenerative braking. The braking pressure was classified into service and emergency braking and reflected the characteristics of the vehicle. The external force acting on the running railway car was tested in accordance with KS R 9217, and the running resistance of the train is presented in the form of a polynomial. The dynamic behavior of the train running on a straight flat line was simulated using UM 8.3. The results were validated with experimental data, and the results were reasonable. With the validated model, a stopping distance was determined according to the initial braking speed and compared with the deceleration braking model. In addition, a safety distance for the train control system could be changed according to the frictional coefficient limits. These results are expected to be useful for analyzing the dynamic behavior of trains, and for analyzing various railway environments and improving the braking performance.

Effect of Pad Structure and Friction Material Composition on Brake Squeal Noise (제동패드의 구조와 마찰재 조성이 제동 스킬소음에 미치는 영향)

  • Goo, Byeong Choon;Kim, Jae Chul;Lee, Beom Joo;Park, Hyoung Chul;Na, Sun Joo
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2017
  • Brake squeal noise has been a challenging problems for a long time. It is very annoying to passengers and residents near tracks. Two methods have been applied to reduce or eliminate brake squeal noise. One is to improve frictional materials; the other is to optimize the topology and structures of brake pads. In this study, we developed two kinds of brake pads; one is a pad whose frictional material is different from the KTX brake pad friction material; the other is a flexible pad that has the same frictional material as that of the KTX brake pad, but a different structure. Squeal noise and friction coefficients were measured and analyzed using a full-scale brake dynamometer. It was found that the dynamometer test can simulate the squeal noise of KTX trains at stations. The squeal frequency of the KTX at 4500Hz was exactly reproduced; this value of 4500Hz was one of the natural frequencies of the KTX brake disc. It was also found that the squeal noise depended on the caliper pressure, initial disc temperature and braking speed. The average friction coefficient was 0.35~0.45. The new pad lowered the squeal noise by 17.3~21.6dB(A).

강자성체를 이용한 연속 가변 토크 제어 전달 기구의 개발

  • Seo, Hyo-Jeong;An, Jae-Yeong;Myeong, Jin-Sol;Ju, Jeong-Hun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • pp.140-140
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    • 2017
  • 4륜 장착 자동차의 토크 전달은 2륜 구동, 4륜 구동 모드를 간단히 전환하는 방식(part time 4WD)과 항시 사륜 구동 모드에서 전후륜의 토크 전달비를 제어하는 방식(AWD, all wheel drive)이 있다. 경제의 발달에 따라서 취미 인구의 확대로 국내에만 180만 명의 R/C car 사용자가 있다. 이 중 2WD-4WD의 전환을 differential lock mechanism으로 구현한 수입산 모델의 가격이 1,000,000원을 호가하지만 가변 제어 방식이 아닌, 정차 후 2-4륜 구동 전환 방식을 적용하고 있으며 상대적으로 내구성이 떨어진다. DC motor의 출력이 늘어나고 배터리의 성능이 좋아진 현재 소형 RC car의 최고 속도는 80 km/h 정도로 빨라졌다. 그러나 마찰 계수가 낮은 노면(실내의 대부분 평활 처리된 복도)에서는 2륜 구동 모드의 활용도가 매우 낮다. 미끄러운 노면에서 후륜 구동 모드로는 oversteer가 발생하여 차량이 스핀하기 쉽고 전륜 구동 모드로는 understeer가 발생하여 제대로 된 코너링이 어렵다. 상시 4륜 구동 모드는 에너지 소모가 크고 전후륜이 tight coupling되어 있는 문제 때문에 일반적인 노면에서 부드러운 코너링이 잘 이루어지지 않는 문제가 있다. 본 연구에서 제안하는 방식은 그림 1와 같이 center shaft의 중간에 영구 자석으로 만들어진 토크 전달용 판이 있고 그 사이에 자계를 차폐할 수 있는 강자성체 셔터를 서보 기구에 연결하여 서보 회전각에 따라서 구동 쪽의 토크가 피구동축으로 전달되는 양을 연속 가변제어할 수 있다. 토크 전달용 판의 차폐 면적에 따른 토크 전달양을 전/후륜 바퀴의 Static torque를 통해 측정하였으며(그림 2), 공중 상태에서 즉 공기저항만을 고려한 상태에서의 RPM 회전수 차이 측정(그림3)을 통해 구동 쪽의 회전수가 피구동축으로 전달되는 양을 측정하여 연속가변 토크 제어 전달 기구의 성능을 확인하였다. 이 기구는 현재 1차적으로는 remote controller의 ch 3(ON/OFF제어 방식)에 연결하여 특정한 양의 토크를 전륜 쪽으로 보낼 수 있도록 구현이 가능하며, ch 2(PID제어 방식)에 연결하여 연속 가변 조절이 가능하도록 구현이 가능하다. 부가적으로 Arduino board를 내장하여 전후륜의 휠센서에서 입력되는 신호를 감지하여 자동적으로 전후륜에 배분되는 토크를 제어할 수 있도록 설계 중에 있다.

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